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. RECORDS OF CALIFORNIA MEN 



WAR OF THE REBELLION, 



1861 TO 1867. 



REVISED AND COMPILED BY 

BEIG.-GE^. RICHAED H. ORTO^vT, 

Adjutant-General of California. 
(Late Captain Company M, First California Cavalry.) 




SACRAMENTO: 

STATE OFFICE, ::::::: J. D. young, supt. state printing. 

1890. 




4 

29 



A' 




^ 



PREFACE. 



Early in 1865, General George S. Evans, then Adjutant-General of 
the State, required the Captain of every company of California Volun- 
teers then in the service, to send to him a roll of his company, giving 
the record of every man who had been a member up to that time, and a 
brief history of the service rendered by the company. From the rolls 
so obtained, General Evans published, in his annual report for the year 
1865, a Register of California Volunteers. As part of the troops were 
in the service until January 4, 1867, and as the rolls were full of omis- 
sions and errors, and were published without revision, the Register, so 
compiled, was also full of omissions and errors and incomplete. 

For the foregoing reasons, and for the further reason that the Register 
published in 1865 is entirely out of print (only a small edition having 
been issued originally), it was decided to revise and issue as complete a 
Register as could be made from the original rolls on file in the Adjutant- 
General's office. Authority to have the work done was obtained from 
the State Legislature, which passed a bill (approved March 16, 1889) " to 
provide for the revision of the records of the California Volunteers, to 
authorize the Adjutant-General to employ additional clerks for that pur- 
pose, and to authorize the Superintendent of State Printing to print, 
bind, and issue the same." 

The Act provides for the issuance of copies of the work to living mem- 
bers of the California Volunteers, or, if deceased, to their heirs. 

No provision has been made for the payment of the postage or express- 
age on the same; and parties entitled, who wish copies, will be informed 
of the amount required to pay postage, upon application to the Adjutant- 
General. 

Of the ten thousand copies authorized by the law, only two thousand 
will be issued in the first edition; but the pages will be electrotyj^ed, so 
that other editions may be issued as they are required. 

It is much regretted that the records of the California Volunteers in 
the office of the Adjutant-General are not more full and complete. Of 
some of the companies there are no rolls on file, and the printed Register 
of 1865 is the only record that can be found, and it is impossible to 
make a complete history of the service rendered. Every source of infor- 
mation has been gleaned, and the history has been made as complete as 



4 PREFACE. 

the scant record and limited time will allow. The reason why the his- 
tories of the " California Column," so called, and of the First Cavalry, 
are more full and complete than those of other expeditions and organi- 
zations, is that fuller and more complete reports of them are found in 
the Adjutant-General's office than of the others. 

This office is indebted to Captain John Mullan, of Washington, D. C, 
for much valuable information relating to the California Volunteers, 
who procured, through Senator Dolph, of Oregon, the publication of a 
large amount of correspondence relative to military affairs on this coast 
during the war. 

Parties discovering errors or omissions in these records are requested 
to notify the Adjutant-General of all such at earliest convenience. 

RICHARD H. ORTON, 

Adjutant-General. 
Sacramento, July 23, 1890. 



RECORD OF CALIFORNIA MEN 



WAR OF THE REBELLION, 1861 TO 1867. 



The State of California, being located far away from the more active 
scenes of the war, was not called upon to furnish troops for immediate 
service against Confederate soldiers, and no quota was assigned it; yet 
during the war calls were made upon it for several regiments and bat- 
talions, aggregating more than sixteen thousand men, besides five hun- 
dred who were enlisted within its borders and became part of the quota 
of the State of Massachusetts, and eight companies raised for Washing- 
ton Territory. With the exception of those enlisted for Massachusetts, 
the California forces took no part in any of the great battles of the war; 
yet the service they rendered was of as great importance as that ren- 
dered by those from other States. It was as severe, entailing long and 
fatiguing marches across burning deserts and among almost inaccessi- 
ble mountains. They were engaged in hundreds of fights with Indians 
and small forces of Confederate troops on the frontiers, in Texas and 
Mexico, and they never knew defeat. It was a constant source of regret 
among them that they were never ordered East, and the question was 
continually asked: " When are we to be ordered to the seat of the war? " 
The Government deemed it wisest to keep them on the Pacific Coast 
and in the Territories. They occupied nearly all the posts from Puget 
Sound to San Elizario, Texas, and they did their duty faithfully, notwith- 
standing their disappointment. By their loyalty they preserved peace 
in these western States and Territories, and the flag of rebellion was 
soon driven beyond the Rio Grande. 

The " W^ar Governors " of California were John G. Downey, Leland 
Stanford, and F. F, Low, and to their loj^alty, zeal, and patriotism, and 
their readiness to respond to every call of the Government, is due the 
promptness with which the different regiments and battalions were 
organized. 

During the exciting and tumultuous times existing upon the outbreak 
of the war the Legislature was loyal to the Government, and the follow- 
ing concurrent resolution was adopted: 

No. XVIII — Concurrent Resolution. 

[Adopted May 17, 1861.] 

Resolved by the Seriate, the Assembh/ concurrinq, That tlie people of California are devoted 
to the Constitution and Union of the United States, and will not fail in tidelity and fealty 
to that Constitution and Union now in the hour of trial and peril. That California is 
ready to maintain the rights and honor of the National Government at home and abroad, 
and at all times to respond to any requisition that may be made upon her to defend the 
republic against foreign or domestic foes. 

2CV 



6 EECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

When the war commenced the United States forces on the Pacific 
Coast were under the command of Brevet Brigadier-General Albert Sidney 
Johnston. It is supposed that there was some doubt as to General 
Johnston's loyalty, as he was a Southern man, and General Sumner was 
sent to relieve him of the command. The following are the orders and 
correspondence relating to the matter: 

March 22, 1861. 
Brig.-Gen. E. V. Sumner: 

Dear General: Prepare to sail from New York the first of tlie next montli to relieve 
Bvt. Brig.-Gen. [A. S.] Johnston, in the command of the Pacific Department, say for a 
tour of some years. 

The order to sail, etc., will reach you hy the next mail, but remain unpublished till 
you are on the Pacific Ocean, for confidential reasons. 
In haste, yours truly, 

WINFIELD SCOTT. 

Orders,) Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 

No. 5. ) San Francisco, April 25, 1861. 

In compliance with Special Orders No. 86, dated "War Department, Adjutant-General's 
Office, Washington, March 23, 1861, I hereby assume command of this department. 
All concerned will govern themselves accordingly. 

E. V. SUMNER, 
Brigadier-General, U. S. Army. 



Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, April 28, 1861. 

Lietit.-Col. E. D. Townsend, Assistant Adjutant-General, Headquarters Army : 

Colonel: I have the honor to report that I arrived here on the twenty-fourth instant, 
and on the twenty-fifth relieved General [A. S.] Johnston in the command of this depart- 
ment. My departure from New York was not known here till the night before my arrival. 
It gives nie pleasure to state that the command was turned over to me in good order. 

General Johnston had forwarded his resignation before I arrived, but he continued to 
hold the command, and was carrying out the orders of the Government. 

I have determined to reinforce immediately and strongly the forts in this harbor, and 
have ordered down three companies of artillery (including the battery) from Fort Van- 
couver. 

I have also taken the liberty to detain the detachment of twenty-nine sappers and 
miners. I trust the General-in-Chief will not disapprove of this. 'My intention is to 
put four hundred men on Alcatraz Island, one hundred and fifty at Fort Point, and 
jilace the battery at the depot at Benicia, in addition to the two infantry companies now 
there. 

These troops will all be supplied with six months' provisions, and additional arrange- 
ments will be made for water where it is necessary, so that they will be independent and 
secure for six months, and will hold the entire control of the entrance to the harbor. I 
think this disposition of the troops will not only secure the Government property, biit 
will have the effect to foreclose at once all hopes "on the part of the disaffected of their 
ever being able to precipitate matters here by seizing forts and arsenals. 

There is a strong Union feeling with the majority of the people of this State, but the 
Secessionists are much the most active and zealous party, which gives them more influ- 
ence than thej^ ought to have from their numbers. 

I have no doubt but there is some deep scheming to draw California into the secession 
movement; in the first place as the "Republic of the Pacific," expecting afterwards to 
induce her to join the Southern Confederacy. 

The troops now here will hold their positions and all the Government property, but if 
there should be a general uprising of the people, they could not, of course, put it down. 

I think the course of events at the East will control events here. So long as the General 
Government is sustained and holds the capital the Secessionists cannot carry this State 
out of the Union. 

I would respectfullv say to the General-in-Chief that after my arrangements are com- 
pleted—and they wilfbe in two weeks— if he should think proper to authorize me to place 
Colonel Wright here in command of the department, everything will be secure; and if 
mj services should be wanted elsewhere, I could be withdrawn from this department 
without detriment to the public service. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

•^ ^ •^' "^ E. V. SUMNER, 

Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 



WAR OF THE REBELLION. 7 

In this connection an extract from a short sketch of General John- 
ston's life, written by Captain Geo. F. Price, late of Second California 
Cavalry, afterwards Captain of Fifth Cavalry, U. S. A., is given: 

The beginning of the war of the Rebellion found Colonel Johnston (assigned on his 
brevet rank) in command of the Pacific States. While he was not a politician, he was 
committed to the doctrine of State allegiance. He declined the command of the South- 
western Dejiartment, because he held, if Texas should secede, Ihat he would be liound in 
honor to surrender the ])ublic property intrusted to his care to the national authorities. 
He was incapable of betraying a trust; but, being persuaded that his adopted State had 
a permanent claim upon him, he would not consent to be placed in a position where he 
might be compelled to antagonize it. 

The letters written by him about this time showed that he viewed with alarm the 
threatening dissolution of the national Union. It is believed by many who are familiar 
with his views, that he asked for an assignment to the Department of the Pacific so as to 
be removed from any participation in tlie impending issue. It was his openly avowed 
judgment that the sword was not the remedy for the existing difficulties, and he always 
congratulated himself that he had never contributed in any way to bring on the conflict. 
When he learned that Texas had seceded he tendered his resignation, April 9, 18bl, and 
it was accepted May 3, 1861. He was relieved from command by Brigadier-General 
Edwin V. Sumner, A^iril 25, 1861, and thus was severed forever his connection with the 
United States Army. A dictionary of American biography charges him with having 
engaged in a conspiracy to surrender the State of California to the Confederates, the con- 
summation of which was only frustrated by the timely arrival of his successor in com- 
mand. No statement could be farther froiii the truth. When he was informed that a 
plot existed to seize Alcatraz, he removed several thousand muskets from the Benicia 
arsenal, where they were greatly exposed, to the island, and then informed the Gov- 
ernor that they could be used, if necessary, by the State militia to suppress insurrection. 

His integrity was so universally recognized that he was not approached upon the sub- 
ject of establishing a Pacific republic, which was favored by many in the event of a 
dissolution of the national Union. His resignation was witliheld from the newsisapers 
until after he had been relieved from command, to guard against any bad effect which 
his act might have upon others, and he declared that so long as he held his commission 
he would maintain the authority of the Government to the last extremity. He informed 
the Governor of California that he had devoted the greater part of his life to the service 
of the country, and that while he held his commission he would serve her honorably and 
faithfully ; and he afterwards said to his friends, referring to the command he had held, 
" If I had proved faithless here, how could my own people ever trust me?" 

The order directing General Sumner to relieve Colonel Johnston also ordered him to 
report in Washington. He was advised by letter that he enjoyed the confidence of the 
Secretary of War, and that upon arrival he'would be assigned to' an important command. 
When General Sumner was informed of his resignation he urged him to recall it, and 
convej^ed to him the message of General Scott, "that he desired his presence for active 
service;" and in a report to the Adjutant-General of the Army, dated April 28, 1861, he 
said: "It gives me great pleasure to state that the command was turned over to me in 
good order. General Johnston had forwarded his resignation before 1 arrived, but he con- 
tinued to hold the command, and was carrying out the orders of the Government." 

When the President (Lincoln) was made acquainted with these facts, he executed a 
Major-General's commission for Colonel Johnston, but having been informed that he had 
already started for Texas the commission was canceled. 

General Johnston accepted a General's commission in the Confederate 
Army, and was killed while in command at the battle of Shiloh. 

The State of California furnished to the Union armies during the 
war two full regiments of cavalry, eight full regiments of infantry, one 
battalion of native California cavalry, and one battalion of infantry, 
called mountaineers, besides several companies of volunteers to Massa- 
chusetts and Washington Territory, a list of which is given below: 

First Battalion Native California Cavalry. 



Date of Earliest 
Enrollment. 



Date of 
Muster In. 



Date of Muster Out. 



Field and staff. 
Company A ... 
Company B .. 

Company C 

Company D .., 



Dec. 9, 1863. 
Mar. 2, 1863. 
Nov. 1, 1863. 
July 25, 1864. 
Jan. 13, 1864. 



Aug. 25, 1864. 
Sept. 7, 1863- 
Mar. 29, 1864. 
Julv 28, 1864. 
Mar. 3, 1864. 



.. July 20, 1866. 
March 20, 1866. 
March 15, 1866. 
.. April 2, 1866. 
March 20, 1866. 



RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

First California Cavalry Volunteers. 



Date of Earliest 
Enrollment. 



Date of 
Muster In. 



Date of Muster Out. 



Field and staff. 
Company A ... 
Company B ... 

Company C 

Company D 



Company E 
Company F 



Company G 
Company H 
Company I . 
Company K 
Company L. 
Company M 



Aug. 12, 1861- 

Aug. 10, 1>^61. 

Aug. 15, 1861. 
Sept. 6, 1861. 

Aug. 14, 1861. 

May 4, 1863. 

Jan. 15, 1863. 

Nov. 14, 1863. 

Mar. 2, 1863. 

Feb. 23, 1863- 

Mar. 11, 1863. 

Mar. 10, 1863. 



Aug. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Sept. 

Aug. 
Dec. 

June 
Dec. 
Nov. 
May 
Aug. 
May 



1861. 
1861. 
1861. 
1861- 

1861. 
1863- 

1863- 
1863- 
1863. 
1863. 
1863. 
1863- 



No muster out roll on file. 

May 22, 1866. 

Septembe'r 10, 1866. 

September 21, 1866. 

Mustered out by detachments 

at various dates in October, 1864. 

March 6, 1866. 

Mustered out by detachments 

in August and September, 1866. 

September 15, 1866. 

September 20, 1866. 

May 22, 1866. 

August 17, 1S66. 

June 28, 1866. 

September 30, 1866. 

The last California volunteer 
company in the U. S. service. 



Second California Cavalry Volunteers. 



Date of Earliest 
Enrollment. 



Date of 
Muster In. 



Date of Muster Out. 



Field and staff 
Company A .. 
Company B... 
Company C - . . 

Company D 

Company E 

Company F 

Company G 

Company H .. 

Company I 

Company K . . 

Company L 

Company M . - 



Sept. 12, 1861.. 
Sept. 5, 1861.. 
Sept. 14, 1861.. 
Sept. 21, 1861.. 
Sept. 10, 1861 -. 
Sept. 20, 1861 -. 
Sept. 6, 1861.. 
Sept. 23, 1861.. 
Sept. 5, 1861.. 
Sept. 25, 1861.. 
Sept. 27, 1861.. 
Sept. 23, 1861.. 
Sept. 25, 1861 -. 



Oct. 17, 

Oct. 2, 

Oct. 30, 

Oct. 22, 

Oct. 18, 

Oct. 7, 

Oct. 10, 

Oct. 11, 

Oct. 14, 

Oct. 22, 

Oct. 22, 

Oct. 14, 

Oct. 10, 



1861. 
1861- 
1861- 
1861- 
1861- 
1861- 
1861- 
1861- 
1861- 
1861- 
1861- 
1861- 
1861- 



July 

April 

June 

May 

May 

June 

June 

February 

April 

June 

May 

-.... July 
July 



31, 1866. 

7, 1866. 
13, 1866. 
30, 1866. 
29, 1866. 

2, 1866. 
27, 1866. 

1, 1866. 
26, 1866. 
24, 1866. 
18, 1866. 
12, 1866. 
12, 1866. 



First California Infantry Volunteers. 



Date of Earliest 
Enrollment. 



Date of 
Muster In. 



Date of Muster Out. 



Field and staff. 
Company A ... 

Company B 

Company C 

Company D 

Company E 

Company F 

Company G 

Company H . . 

Company 1 

Company K .. 



Aug. 5, 1861. 

Aug. 15, 1861. 

Aug. 26, 1861- 

Aug. 16, 1861- 

Aug. 17, 1861- 

Aug. 26, 1861- 

Aug. 16, 1861. 



Aug. 1, 1861- 

Aug. 17, 1861- 

Aug. 17, 1861- 

Oct. 20, 1861- 



Aug. 
Dec. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 



Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Jan. 



1861- 
1861. 
1861- 
1861- 
1861- 
1861- 



1861- 
1861- 
1861- 
1862- 



No muster out roll on file. 

September 9, 1866. 

September 15, 1866. 

Septcnilier 17, 1866. 

Seiitcmber 15, 1866. 

September 15, 1866. 

Company broken 

up March 16, 1865, and men 
transferred to other companies. 

September 15, 1866. 

Augu.st31, 1864. 

August 31, 1864. 

- November 29, 1864. 



Note.— Regiment was consolidated into a battalion of seven companies in November, 1864. 
* No muster in roll on file. 



WAR OF THE REBELLION. 

Second California Infantry Volunteers. 



Date of Earliest 
Enrollment. 



Date of 
Muster In. 



Date of Muster Out. 



Field and statf. 
Company A ... 
•Company B .-. 

Company C 

Compaii}' D ... 
Company E .. 
Company F .. 
Company G .. 
Company H .. 

Company I 

<3ompany K .. 



Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Nov. 



1861.. 
1861.. 
1861.. 
1861.. 
1861.. 
1861.. 
1861.. 
1861.. 
1861.. 
1861.. 
1861.. 



Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 



2, 1861. 
11, 1861. 
14, 1861. 
10, 1861. 
14, 1861. 
14, 1861. 



Dec. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Dec. 



31, 1861. 
21, 1861. 
25, 1861. 
31, 1861. 



April 
. June 
. May 
. May 

April 
. May 

- MaV 

- May 
. July 

- May 
. June 



16, 1866. 
30, 1866. 
10, 1866. 
10, 1866. 
16, 1866. 
10, 1866. 

4, 1866. 
10, 1866. 

2, 1866. 
10, 1866. 
30, 1866. 



Third California Infantry Volunteers. 



Date of Earliest 
Enrollment. 



Date of 
Muster In. 



Date of Muster Out. 



Field and staff. 
Company A ... 

Company B 

Company C 

Company D ... 

Company E ... 

Company F ... 

Company G .. 

Company H .. 

Company I 

Company K .. 



Aug. 
Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept. 



31, 1861. 
16, 1861. 
15, 1861. 

14, 1861. 
24, 1861. 

20, 1861. 

24, 1861. 

15, 1861. 
24, 1861. 

4, 1861. 
20, 1861. 



Nov. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Dec. 
Oct. 



30, 1861 _ 

31, 1861. 
31, 1861. 
31, 1861. 
31, 1861. 



Dec. 21, 1861. 



Dec. 
Dec. 



2, 1861. 

3, 1861. 



July 27, 1866. 

July 27, 1866. 

July 27, 1866. 

July 27, 1866. 

Consolidated with 

Company C, December 9, 1865. 

November 1, 1864, 

discontinued by consolidation. 

I^^ovember 1, 1864, 

discontinued by consolidation. 

l?ovember 1, 1864, 

discontinued by consolidation. 

November 1, 1864, 

discontinued by consolidation. 

Ifovember 1, 1864, 

discontinued by consolidation. 

IN^'ovember 1, 1864, 

discontinued by consolidation. 



Note.— Regiment was consolidated into a battalion of four companies in November, 1864. 
Fourth California Infantry Volunteers. 



Date of Earliest 
Enrollment. 



Date of 
Muster In. 



Date of Muster Out. 



Field and staff. 
Company A .. 
Company B .. 

Company C 

Company D .. 
Company E . 

Company F 

Company G 

Company H .. 
Company I ._. 
Company. K .. 



Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Sept. 



6, 1861. 
13, 1861. 
12, 1861. 

2, 1861. 
18, 1861. 
10, 1861. 

9, 1861. 

7, 1861. 
2, 1861. 
7, 1861. 
7, 1861. 



Nov. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Feb. 

Feb. 

Feb. 



8, 1861- 
21, 1861. 

7,- 1861. 

5, 1861. 
15, 1861. 
10, 1861. 
26, 1861. 
26, 1861. 

1, 1862. 

1, 1862. 

1, 1862. 



November 
September 

April 

. . February 
-December 

March 

November 

March 

November 
November 
N ovember 



30, 1865. 
23, 1865. 

18, 1866. 

19, 1866. 
19, 1865. 

31, 1866. 

30, 1865. 

31, 1866. 
30, 1865. 
30, 1865. 
30, 1865. 



Note. — The regiment was consolidated into a battalion of five companies, November 30, 1865. 
*No muster in roll on file. 



10 



RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 
Fifth California Infantry Volunteers. 



Date of Earliest 
Enrollment. 



Date of 
Muster In. 



Date of Muster Out. 



Field and staff 
Company A . . 
Company B... 
Company C-.. 
Company D . _ _ 
Company E .. 
Company F... 
Company G .. 
Company H .. 

Company I 

Company K . . 



Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Oct. 



12, 1861- 
12, 1861. 
27, 1861. 
15, 1861- 
17, 1861. 
19, 1861. 

1, 1861. 

1, 1861. 

1, 1861. 

6, 1861. 
21, 1861. 



.December 
November 
.December 
November 
November 
November 
November 
November 
.December 
November 
November 



14. 1864. 
30, 1864. 
12, 1864. 
30, 1864. 
27, 1864. 
30, 1864. 
30, 1864. 
27, 1864. 
12, 1864. 
30, 1864. 
27, 1864. 



Sixth California Infantry Volunteers. 



Date of Earliest 
Enrollment. 



Date of 
Muster In. 



Date of Muster Out. 



Field and staff: 
Company At .. 

Company B 

Company C 

Company D __. 

Company E 

Company F 

Company G 

Company H ... 

Company I 

Company K ... 



Feb. 1, 
Sept. 15, 
Feb. 13, 
Feb. 27, 
June 8, 
Mar. 2, 
Mar. 16. 
Mar. 7, 
Feb. 23, 
June 24, 
Mar. 20, 



1863- 
1862. 
1864- 
1863- 
1864- 
1863. 
1864. 
1^63- 
1863- 
1864. 
1863. 



Mar. 

Oct. 

May 

Oct. 

Sept. 

July 

Aug. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Sept. 

Feb. 



1863. 
1862. 
1864. 
1«63- 
1864. 
1863. 
1864- 
1864- 
1864. 
1864. 
1864- 



... October 
. . . October 
... October 
.December 
.December 
... October 
...October 
-. . October 
-.. October 
-December 
. .- October 



31, 1865, 
31, 1865. 
25, 1865. 
15, 1865. 
20, 1865.. 
31, 1865. 
25, 1865. 
31, 1865. 
25, 1865. 
20, 1865. 
25, 1865. 



Seventh California Infantry' Volunteers. 



Date of Earlie.st 
Enrollment. 



Date of 
Muster In. 



Date of Muster Out. 



Field and staff. 

Company A 

Company B 

Company C... 

Corapany D 

Company E 

Company F 

Company G... 
Company H . . 

Company I 

Companj^ K -. 



Dec. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Oct. 



14, 1864. 

30, 1864- 
1, lb64- 
1, 1864. 

3, 1864. 

6, 1864- 

4, 1864- 
3, 1864. 

7, isefi. 

10, 1864. 
17, 1864. 



Jan. 
Jan. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Jan. 
Dec. 
.Jan. 
Dec. 
Jan. 
Nov. 
Nov. 



24, 1865. 
5, 1865. 

13, 1864- 
5, 1864- 

28, 1865. 
28, 1864- 
10, 1865- 

14, 1864. 
10, 1865- 
22, 1864. 

25, 1864- 



.. May 22, 1866. 
. April 13, 1866. 
. April 26, 1866. 
. April 26, 1866. 
-- May 22, 1866. 
-June 28, 1866. 
. April 13, 1866. 
..June 28, 1866. 
. March 1, 1866. 
March 31, 1866. 
. April 26, 1866. 



Eighth California Infantry Volunteers. 



Date of Earliest 
Enrollment. 



Date of 
Muster In. 



Date of Muster Out. 



Field and staff' 
Company A .. 
Company B... 
Company C... 
Company D... 
Company E... 
Company F... 

Company G 

Company H .. 
Company I ... 
Company K .. 



Jan. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Jan. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 



30, 1865- 

12, 1864. 

16, 1864. 

15, 1864- 

15, 1864- 
8, 1864- 
7, 1865- 

18, 1864. 

24, 1864. 

28, 1864. 

28, 1864. 



Mar. 

Nov. 
Dec. 
Jan. 
Feb. 
Jan. 
Feb. 
Jan. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 



31, 1865. 
29, 1864. 
5, 1864- 
28, 1865. 
14, 1865- 
25, 1865. 
14, 1865. 

5, 1865. 
27, 1865. 

6, 1865. 
25, 1865. 



Octob'er 
. October 
, October 
October 
. October 
. October 
. October 
, October 
October 
October 
October 



24, 1865. 
24, 1865. 
24, 1865. 
24, 1865. 
24, 1865. 
24, 1865. 
24, 1865. 
24, 1865. 
24, 1865. 
24, 1865. 
24, 1865. 



* No muster in roll on file. 

t Raised in Washington Territory and assigned to this regiment. 



WAR OF THE REBELLION. 
First Battalion California Mountaineers (Infantry). 



11 



Date of Earliest 
Enrollment. 



Date of 
Muster In. 



Date of Muster Out. 



Field and staff. 
Company A -. 
Company B . . 

Company C 

Company D . . . 
Company E .. 
Company F... 



June 22, 1863.. 
Apr. 18, 1863. . 
Apr. 15, 1863.. 
May 8, 1863.. 
Sept. 30, 1863.. 
May 1, 1863.. 
Aug. 25, 1863 -. 



.Tune 22, 1863_ 
May 30, 18G3. 
June 2, 1863. 
Aug. 29, 1863. 
Mar. 16, 1864. 
Aug. 31, 1863. 
Feb. 19, 1864. 



. June 15, 1865. 
April 25, 1865. 
. May 13, 1865. 
. May 23, 1865. 
. May 20, 1865. 
. June 14, 1865. 
. June 9, 1865. 



Note.— The State of California is credited with having furnished 15,725 volunteers during the 
late war. 

In addition to the organizations named in the foregoing list, it appears 
that five companies of the Second Massachusetts Cavalry Volunteers 
were enrolled and mustered into service in California, and credited to 
the State of Massachusetts, viz.: 

Company A, enrolled from October 28 to December 10, 1862, at San 
Francisco, Cal., and mustered into service December 10, 1862, at same 
place. Mustered out July 20, 1865, at Fairfax Court House, Va. 

Company E, enrolled from January 26 to March 17, 1863, at San Fran- 
cisco, Cal., and mustered in March 20, 1863, at same place. Mustered 
out July 20, 1865, at Fairfax Court House, Va. 

Company F, enrolled from March 27 to April 23, 1863, at San Fran- 
cisco, Cal., and part of company mustered in April 22, 1863, at San Fran- 
cisco, Cal., and part May 10, 1863, at Boston, Mass. Mustered out July 
20, 1865, at Fairfax Court House, Va. 

Company L, enrolled from January 26 to March 21, 1863, at San Fran- 
cisco, Cal., and mustered in March 21, 1863, at same place. Mustered 
out July 20, 1865, at Fairfax Court House, Va. 

Company M, enrolled from February 3 to March 21, 1863, at San Fran- 
cisco, Cal., and mustered in March 21, 1863, at same place. Mustered 
out July 20, 1865, at Fairfax Court House, Va. 

It further appears that eight companies of the First Regiment, Wash- 
ington Territory Infantry Volunteers, were recruited in the State of Cal- 
ifornia, viz.: 

Company A, mustered in March 12, 1862, and mustered out March 25, 
1865. 

Company B, mustered in April 1, 1862, and mustered out April 1, 
1865. 

Company C, mustered in April 7, 1862, and mustered out May 12, 
1865. 

Company D, mustered in April 12, 1862, and mustered out April 12, 
1865. 

Company E, mustered in June 19, 1862, and original members mus- 
tered out October 24, 1865, to date June 19, 1865. 

Company G, mustered in August 31, 1862, and transferred to Com- 
pany I in March, 1865. 

Company H, mustered in October 2, 1862, and mustered out September 
22, 1865. 

Company I, mustered in October 21, 1862, and mustered out November 
20, 1865. 

The above named companies were mustered in at Alcatraz Island, 
California, and mustered out at Fort Vancouver, Washington. 



12 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

Making altogether nearly seventeen thousand volunteers enlisted in 
California. 

The first call for troops from California was as follows: 

[By telegram to farthest point west, and thence by pony express to California.] 

War Department, 
July 24, 1861—8 : 30 p. m. 
To the Governor of California: 

. The War Department accepts for three years one regiment of infantry and five com- 
panies of cavalry to guard the overland mail route from Carson Valley to Salt Lake and 
JFort Laramie. 

Colonel Waite will be put in command of department at Salt Lake City. General 
Sumner will detail mustering officers to muster in the men. 

SIMON CAMERON, 

Secretary of War. 

[True copy.] L. THOMAS, 

Adj utant-General. 

Under that call one full regiment of ten companies of infantry was 
raised, which became the First California Infantry, and five companies 
of cavalry, which became the First Battalion of the First California 
Cavalry. In 1863 seven more companies of cavalry were raised, making 
the First Cavalry a full regiment of twelve companies. 

Soon after the second call was received by the Governor, as follows: 

[By telegraph to Fort Kearney, and thence by pony express and telegraph.] 

Washington, August 14, 1861. 
To John G. Downey, Governor of California: 

Please organize, equip, and have mustered into service at the earliest date possible four 
regiments of infantry and one regiment of cavalry, to be placed at the disposal of General 
Sumner. 

SIMON CAMERON, 

Secretary of War. 

Under this second call the Second Cavalry and the Second, Third, 
Fourth, and Fifth Regiments of Infantry were formed. In this connec- 
tion the following dispatch is interesting: 

War Department, 
Washington, D. C, August 15, 1861. 

To his Excellency John G. Downey, Governor of State of California, Sacramento City, Cal.: 

Sir: I have this day forwarded to your address a dispatch by telegraph and by pony 
express, to the effect that in filling tlie requisition given you August fourteenth for five 
regiments you will please make General D. D. Colton, of San Francisco, Colonel of a cav- 
alry regiment, and give him the proper authority to organize as promptly as possible. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

SIMON CAMERON, 

Secretary of War. 

The commission was offered to General Colton and accepted, but he 
never completed the organization of the regiment and he was never 
mustered into the United States service. 

Immediately upon receipt of the dispatches quoted above. Governor 
Downey issued the following: 

[Proclamations.] 

State of California, Executive Department, 
Sacramento, August 12, 1861. 

In pui. . a communication from the Secretary of War, datel July 24, A. D. 1861, 

"accepting . three years one regiment of infantry and five companies of cavalry to 
guard the overland mail route from Carson Valley to Salt Lake and Fort Laramie," I, 



WAR OF THE REBELLION. 13 

John G. Downey, Governor of the State of California, do hereby call for volunteers for 
the above mentioned service. The forces will be organized in accordance with the laws 
and regulations of the United States, and will be mustered into service at such times and 
places as may be directed by the commanding officer of the United States on this coast. 

JOHN G. DOWNEY, 

Governor. 



State of California, Executive Department, 
Sacramento, August 23, 1861. 

Whereas, by an additional communication from the Secretarv of War, bearing date 
August 14, A. D. 1861, to the Executive of this State directed, the rresident of the United 
States has called for four regiments of infantry and one of cavalry, to be placed at the 
disposal of Brig. -Gen. E. V. Sumner, U. S. Army, "organized, equipped, and mustered 
into service by the State of California, such call being made in pursuance of the Act of 
Congress passed July 19, 1861, entitled 'An Act to authorize the em]>loyment of volunteers 
to aid in enforcing the laws and protecting the public property.' " 

Now, therefore, I, John G. Downey, Governor of the State of California and Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the militia, etc., of the same, do hereby authorize and call upon the 
citizens, as many as shall be necessary to fill up the preceding requisition, to immedi- 
ately form and organize themselves into "volunteer companies," in accordance with the 
directions and requirehients stated in Sections 17, 18, and 19 of the Statutes of this State, 
entitled "An Act in relation to the militia of this State," approved May 9, 1861. 

Said companies will be accepted and mustered into service according to the reception, 
bj'the Adjutant-General of the State, of the certificate of organization mentioned in Sec- 
tion 18 of said Act, and reported by that officer to the Commander-in-Chief, the infantry 
companies to consist of any number between eighty-three and one hundred and one, and 
the cavalry com]ianies of ' any numl)er between seventy-nine and ninety-five, officers 
inclusive; the cominissioned officers of each company to consist of one Captain, one First 
Lieutenant, and one Second Lieutenant. 

The Commander-in-Chief will proceed forthwith to organize the regiments aforesaid 
out of said companies according- to their priority and in conformity to law. While the 
Act of Congress aforesaid requires the "Governors of States furnishing volunteers to 
commission the field, staff, and company officers requisite," the Commander-in-Chief 
will in all cases give preference to the officers elected by the respective companies, pro- 
vided that thev are competent and pass examination before the Military Board already 
appointed by the United States officer commanding Pacific Division, San Francisco. 

VolunteerVompanies already organized and commissioned are expected to report forth- 
with to the Adjutant-General, tendering their services to meet the requirements of this 
proclamation. Companies tendering their services will expressly state whether they are 
infantry or cavalry. 

In witness whereof, I have set my hand and caused the great seal of the State to be 
affixed. 

Done at Sacramento, California, this twenty-third day of August, in the year of our 
Lord 1861. 

JOHN G. DOWNEY, 

Attest: Johnson Price, Secretary of State. Governor. 

The Governor, in his message to the Legislature, said as follows regard- 
ing the requisitions made upon him: 

THE state's contingent. 

Two requisitions were made upon me by the Secretary of War for troops for the service 
of the General Government, the first bearing date of July 24, 1861, for one regiment of 
infantry and five companies of cavalry, and the other dated August 14, 1861, for four 
regiments of infantry and one regiment of cavalry. 

The Legislature having adjourned without ])lacing any funds at the disposal of the 
Executive to meet such contingency, and the language of these requisitions urging all 
possible dispatch, I at once issued my proclamations calling out the required force. It 
entailed much labor upon this department, for which it feels fully compensated Ijy the' 
character of the officers selected and the soldierly bearing and character of the men who 
compose the rank and file. 

The whole contingent as organized is composed of our best citizens — men of character 
and means from all ranks and pursuits of life— and will achieve an honorable fame for 
our State and render good service to the nation when called into active duty. In organ- 
izing this force commissions were conferred upon officers in the regular army of the 
United States as Colonels, in order to give efficiency and discipline to our raw recruits. 
By an order from the War Department I was notified that these officers could not be 
permitted to retain position in the volunteer service, as they were ordered to the scene of 
hostilities to join their respective regiments. Two of these officers. Colonels Kellogg and 
Judah, rendered much aid in raising and organizing the Fourth and Fifth Regiments of 



14 RECOKD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

Volunteers, at great expense and trouble to themselves, without being permitted to enjoy 
the honors or emoluments arising therefrom. 

The cavalry regiment was raised before Colonel Smith arrived to take command of the 
volunteers; lie now has charge of the troops of the State along our southern frontier. 
I would recommend that appropriations be made to compensate the officers mentioned 
for the personal expenses necessarily incurred by them and the imi^ortant services they 
have rendered the State— say $2,500. 

A large amount of business has been entailed upon the Adjutant-General in clerical 
labor and services attendant vipon the extraordinary duty connected with and occasioned 
by the raising of our contingent, and I would recommend an appropriation of $1,500 as 
a just compensation therefor. 

The militia law of last year is foimd to work well, and meets the expectation of its 
advocates. It declares that all necessary expenses arising under its operation shall be 
defrayed out of the General Fund ; but the Legislature failed to make any appropriation. 
It is hoiked that a small appropriation will be made to meet the inconsiderable amounts 
already audited, as well as tne future contingent expenses for the year. Too much impor- 
tance cannot be placed upon the organization of our militia, in order that efficiency may 
be attained, and that a military spirit may be infused into our citizens. It cannot be 
expected that volunteers will drill and parade without arms. For these reasons I recom- 
mended last vear a military tax for rent of armories and the purchase of arms. We 
should, therefore, have at least a hundred thousand stands of arms distributed among 
our militia ; instead of this there are not three thousand, and many of these are of antique 
style and character, of but little use for modern warfare. 

Extract from Governor Stanford's inaugural message:] 

California has nobly and wisely pronounced in favor of the cause of the people. Let 
her prove her devotion to the Union and to civil liberty by doing all in her power to 
maintain both. Let her part of the national tax be cheerfully assumed and provision 
be made for its payment out of the State Treasury. Every one of us should feel that we 
are but guardians," holding our lives and our fortunes in trust for the protection of the 
Government, around whicli cluster the anxious hopes and fears of millions who have 
grown with its growth and strengthened with its strength. 

Our Government is emphatically one of the people, i>ossessing the power of the people 
for their protection and defense, but powerless for their oppression. It is not only the 
best, but it is the strongest form of government the world has ever known. Let it remain 
unchanged. 

The citizens of California are, by birth, the representatives of all parts of the Union, 
and are naturally imbued with more or less of local sympathies. 

Let us be as tolerant and charitable of opinion as nossiblB, but none should ever forget 
that California is one of the United States; that she is loyal to the Union; that her 
citizens have quite recently unmistakably declared their devotion to our national unity, 
their recognition of the supremacy of the National Government, and their determination 
to maintani both inviolate. 

Every citizen of California must remember his duty, and, remembering, discharge it 
faithfully. His fellow-citizens are now in the fieldj armed against traitors and treason, 
and for the preservation of the Union and the National Government. The whole power 
of the State should, if necessary, be wielded to encourage, support, and sustain these 
patriotic citizens and their compatriots. Let treason meet a just and speedy punishment, 
and may we soon, as I doubt not we shall, see peace restored to our beloved Union, our 
institutions more firmly implanted than ever, and sustained by a national sentiment 
that shall pervade every section of our country. The new administration enters upon 
the discharge of its duties at a momentous period of our nation's history. I confidently 
trust there will be concert of action in all the departments of our State government to 
strengthen the arm of the Federal power, and also in whatever will tend to advance the 
interests of our State. 



PROPOSED INVASION OF CALIFORNIA. 15 



PROPOSED INVASION OF CALIFORNIA FROM TEXAS; 

EVIDENCE OF SYMPATHY WITH REBELLION IN THE 
STATE AND ADJACENT TERRITORIES. 



The Confederate Government entertained hopes in the earlier period 
of the struggle of securing New Mexico and Arizona, and if possible of 
gaining a foothold in California, in order to obtain supplies of men, 
horses, money, etc. 

A large force came through Texas, captured New Mexico, and pushed 
their advance nearly to the Colorado River. A large party was organ- 
ized in California under one Dan Showalter, which was captured near 
Warner's Ranch by detachments of the First California Cavalry and 
First California Infantry. They were found to be loaded down with 
arms and ammunition, being armed with repeating rifles; and from dis- 
patches intercepted and found on their persons it was discovered that 
several of them were commissioned as officers in the Confederate service. 
They were held as prisoners of war at Fort Yuma until exchanged. 

These matters will be treated more fully when writing the histories of 
the different regiments. 

The following correspondence will show the intentions of the Confed- 
erate authorities: 

Headquarters Department of Texas, 
Galveston, November 25, 1861. 

General S. Cooper, Adjutant and Inspector-General, C. S. A., Richmond, Va.: 

Sir: I have the honor to inclose herewith, for the information of the Secretary of War, 
a communication from Lieut.-Col. John R. Baylor, First Regiment Texas Mounted Rities, 
informing that California is on the eve of a revolution, and recommending that the 
Southerners in that State be induced to join the Confederate States Army. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

P. 0. HEBERT, 
Brigadier-General, P. A., Commanding Department of Texas. 

Headquarters, DoSa ASa, Ariz., 
November 2, 1861. 
Maj. S. B. Davis : 

Sir: I beg to call your attention to some matter of information that may be of service 
to the Government at this time. California is on the eve of a revolution. There are 
manv Southern men there who would cheerfully join us if they could get to us, and they 
coulcl come well armed and mounted. I would ask permission to get all such men as 
choose to join us, and would further ask that some arrangement for the purchase of horses 
in California be made. I could now buy the best of horses there for less than $50 per 
head, and there are manv Southern men who would sell them for Confederate bonds. 

Another thing I take tlie liberty of suggesting is, that a force be placed in western Ari- 
zona, to watch the landing of United States troops at Guaymas, that they may not pass 
through Sonora to invade us. A party of Californians have just arrived, and report that 
there are no troops on the road at this time, but that the United States Government was 
trying to raise them for the purpose of invasion, and I am reliably informed that the 
Government of Mexico has sent orders to the Governor of Sonora to allow the passage of 
United States troops through that State, and agents are in Sonora buying corn and sup- 
plies for United States troops. I have thought proper to furnish you with this informa- 
tion and leave you to act upon it. 
Respectfully, 

JOHN R. BAYLOR, 
Lieutenant-Colonel, Commanding T. M. R. 



16 RECOKD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, Cal., April 30, 1861. 

Lieut. -Col. E. D. Townsend, Assistant Adjutant-General, Headquarters Army: 

Sir: I have the honor to report that I have found it necessary to withdraw the troops 
from Fort Mojave and place tnem at Los Angeles. There is more danger of disaffection 
at this place than any other in the State. There are a number of influential men there 
who are decided Secessionists, and if we should have any difficulty it will commence there. 
Fort Mojave is represented as an entirely useless post. There are no hostile Indians near 
it, and there is no traveling whatever on the road it is intended to protect. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

E. V. SUMNER, 
Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 



Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, Cal., May 10, 1861. 

'Lieut-Col. E. D. Townsend, A. A. G., U. S. A., Headquarters Army, Washington, D. C: 

Sir: I have the honor to report that I have found it necessary to withdraw Brevet 
Major Carleton's company of dragoons from Fort Tejon and to place it at Los Angeles. 
This will give a command at the latter place of one company of horse and two of infantry. 
The detachment will be commanded by Major Carleton. 

I have also to report the arrival of three comjjanies of artillery from Oregon. The 
battery will take post at the depot at Benicia, and the two foot companies at Fort 
Alcatraz. 

I have informed Captain McDougal, the commander of the navy yard, that if he does 
not feel perfectly seciu-e and wishes any further protection, I will place a company of 
artillery there. 
Captain Burton has been assigned to the command at Fort Alcatraz. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

E. V. SUMNER, 
Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 



Department of State, 
Washington, June 4, 1861. 
Hon. Simon Cameron, Secretary of War: 

Sir: I have the honor to communicate a copy of a letter of the third ult., addressed 
to this department by Mr. Thomas Sprague, late commercial agent of the United States, 
of La Paz, Lower California, relative to the supposed designs of the insurgents in this 
country to seize upon that province. It is suggested that orders be given to the com- 
mander of the military forces of the United States on the Pacific with a view to prevent 
the execution of any such designs. 

I am, sir, your obedient servant, 

WILLIAM H. SEWARD. 



General Orders,) Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 

No. 11. f San Francisco, May 31, 1861. 

Any vessel sailing imder the Secession flag, so called, which shall enter or attempt to 
enter anj^ of the waters of the United States on this coast, will immediately be captured 
by the troops stationed there. Any such vessel which shall fail to come to or surrender 
on being duly warned, or which shall attempt to escape, will be fired into and sunk, if 
necessary. 
By order of Brigadier-General Sumner. 

D. C. BUELL, 
Assistant Adjutant-General. 

Santa Barbara, Cal., May 3, 1861. 
Hon. William H. Seward, Secretary of State: 

Sir: I have within a few days received information that I know to be entirely reliable, 
that it is the intention of the Secessionists to take possession of the Peninsula'of Lower 
California, Mexico, as one of the preparatory steps to the acquiring of a portion or the 
whole of Mexico. 

Having possession of the Peninsula of Lower California, their intention is to cut off 
our commerce with Mexico, seize the Panama steamers, and with the aid of the treasure 
so acquired to be able to extend their conquest to Sonora and Chihuahua at least. The 
possession of the Peninsula of Lower California is absolutely and indispensably necessary 



PKOPOSED INVASION OF CALIFORNIA. 17 

to the proper advancement and protection of the Pacific interests of the United States. 
The native-born i)opuhition of this State, without one solitary exception, will join the 
Secessionists. The most of the Mexicans and French will do the same. 

Rather than the filibustering Secessionists should get possession of the Peninsula of 
Lower California I think our Government quite warranted (in case no arrangement can 
be made with the Mexican Government for its purchase) in taking possession of it for our 
own protection ; at least to hold it as against the designs of the Secessionists. 

For information in relation to the Peninsula of Lower California, I refer you to my last 
report to Secretary Cass. 

"With high respect, I remain, your obedient servant, 

THOMAS SPRAGUE, 
Late U. S. Commercial Agent at La Paz, Lower California, Mexico. 



War Department, 
Washington, June 8, 1861. 
Hon. William H. Seward, Secretary of State: 

Sir: In accordance with your suggestion of the fourth instant, the commander of the 
forces on the Pacific Coast will be instructed to take measures to prevent the execution 
of any design that may be entertained by the insurgents of seizing Lower California. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

SIMON CAMERON, 

Secretary of War. 

Headquarters of the Army, 
WASHiNCiTON, June 5, 1861. 

Brigadier-General Sumner, U. S. Army, Commander of the Department of the Pacific, San 
Francisco, Cal.: 

Sir : The General-in-Chief directs that you act in concert with the Naval Commander 
on the Pacific Station in preventing, so far as your means will permit, any plans the 
Secessionists may attempt to execute for subjecting, or annexing, Lower California to the 
so called Southern Confederacy. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

E. D. TOWNSEND, 
Assistant Adjutant-General. 



Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, Cal., July 10, 1861. 

Lieut.-Col. E. D. Townsend, Assist. Adjt.-Gen., Hdqrs. of the Army, Washington, D. C: 

Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of June fifth, 
and herewith inclose a copy of my letter to the senior naval officer at Panama on the sub- 
ject embraced therein. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

E. V. SUMNER, 
Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 

[Inclosure.] 

Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, Cal., July 10, 1861. 

Commodore J. B, Montgomery, or Senior Naval Officer, U. S. Navy, Panama : 

Commodore: I inclose a copy of a letter I have recently received, and I take an early 
opportunity to say to you that I shall be prepared at all times to act with you in prevent- 
ing the Secessionists from getting a foothold on this coast. 1 have heard a report that 
Colonel Van Dorn, of the Southern Army, was seen at the head of one thousand three 
hundred men on the road between San Antonio and El Paso. I cannot say whether this 
report is reliable or not. I would respectfully suggest whether it would hot be well to 
have one or two small steamers cruising on the coast between this and Acapulco, for the 
protection of the liners. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

E. V. SUMNER, 
Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 



18 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, Cal., June 10, 1861. 

Lieut.-CoJ. E. D. Townsend, Asst. Adjt.-Gen., Hdqrs. of the Army, Washington, D. C: 

Sir : I have the honor to report that I have found it necessary to withdraw from Oregon 
a considerable part of the force stationed there to reinforce the troops stationed in Cali- 
fornia and Nevada Territory. The troops withdrawn are three companies of artillery 
and will be nine of infantry. 

There is no secession element in Oregon, and nothing to apprehend there but the pos- 
sibility of some Indian disturbances, which seem to me of little consequence, in com- 
parison to preserving the integrity of the Union. 

As I reported on April twenty-fifth, I believe there is a large majority of Union men 
in the State, but they are supine from confidence, while there is an active and zealous 
party of Secessionists", who will make all the mischief they can. I have checked them in 
the southern part of the State by placing a strong command at Los Angeles, and they 
are now trying to organize in Nevada Territory, but I am moving reinforcements rapidly 
to Fort Churchill, which will put down this movement. The leaders of this party claim 
to be acting by authority from the Montgomery Government, which gives them some 
weight in the country. In concentrating troops to meet these emergencies I have been 
obliged to break up the posts of Ter-Waw and Tejon, but they had ceased to be of any 
importance as military posts. 

I would respectfully and earnestly represent the great importance of organizing the 
civil government in Nevada Territory immediately. I believe if the Governor and other 
officials had been there this difficulty would not have arisen. There is no law or govern- 
ment there at all, and the Territory is a place of refuge for disorganizers and other unruly 
spirits. I would respectfully remind the General-in-Chief that if he needs my services 
at the East, I can make such arrangements that everything will be secure here. I would 
not say this unless 1 knew I could do it. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

E. V. SUMNER, 
Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 



Headquarters, Fort Churchill, Nev., June 11, 1861. 

Maj. D. C. BuELL, Assist. Adjt.-Gen., Hdqrs. Dept. Pacific, San Francisco, Cal.: 

Major: I would respectfully report that in carrying out your instructions by telegram 
of June 6, 1861, Captain Moore, Assistant Quartermaster, was directed to proceed to Car- 
son City, accompanied by twenty dragoons, under the command of Lieutenant Baker, 
and take possession of all such public arms as might be held by citizens of that place or 
vicinity. Inclosed you will find the report of his action and the success with which he 
carried out his instructions from these headquarters. 

Captain Moore reports that the rumor that the Secession organization in Virginia City 
did intend to surprise this post and secure the arms here had a foundation in fact, and 
that the Secession flag raised there on the fifth was undoubtedly to ascertain the strength 
of the secession feeling in the Territory. 

From all that can be learned I think that the force now en route for this post will be 
sufficient to preserve the Federal authority intact. I would, however, recommend that 
the arms called for in my letter of the sixth of June be forwarded, as the Union feeling is 
strong in and about Virginia City, but unfortunately the law-abiding citizens are without 
arms and ammunition. I received, June fourth, a letter from Mr. Buckley, Superintend- 
ent of the Overland Mail Company. He reports the Indians as quiet, and as evincing a 
disposition to remain so. They are very poor, having but little food, and are really in a 
most destitute condition. Up "to the present time everything remains quiet in Virginia. 
I am, sir, with great respect, your most obedient servant, 

GEO. A. H. BLAKE, 

Major, First Dragoons, Commanding Post. 

[Inelosure.] 

Fort Churchill, Nev., June 10, 1861. 

Maj. George A. H. Blake, First Dragoons, Commanding: 

Major: I have the honor to report that, in accordance with your instructions of June 
7, 1861, I proceeded to Carson, with the detachment of twenty 'dragoons under the com- 
mand of Lieutenant Baker. On my arrival at that place I called upon Mr. John Black- 
burn to turn over to me the public arms in his possession. Those he had in Carson were 
at once transferred to me, he at the same time giving an order on Captain Curtis and Mr. 
Shiririch, of Silver City, for twenty-one stand left in their charge for safe keeping. 

While in Silver City I heard of a number of muskets suiijiosed to be in the hands of 
diiferent individuals. On examining the houses of these persons none were to be found, 



PROPOSED INVASION OF CALIFORNIA. 19 

and they all stated that the arms had been turned over to Benjamin F. Lippincott, who 



contemplate any resistance on the part of the people or that a demonstration adverse to 
the Federal authority would be made, I believed tiaat the putting down of any movement 
of that nature would meet with your approbation. 

On my arrival at Virginia City everything was comparatively quiet, although there 
was considerable excitement among the advocates of tlae Southern rebellion. Imme- 
diate examination of all buildings suspected of containing arms was made. The build- 
ing on which the Rebel flag was hoisted a few days since was found to contain no arms, 
and the proprietor assured me that tlie flag was" hoisted more for a joke than with the 
intention of causing any excitement. His statement, I believe, was intended for a blind, 
as I was subsequently informed from the most reliable residents of the place that there 
was, beyond a doubt, an organization to subvert the authority of the Federal Govern- 
ment in this Territory and declare in favor of the Confederate States. That there are 
arms in or near Virginia City there can be no doubt, but the organization has been so 
close in its operations that tlie responsibility can be placed on no one individual, nor can 
the Union men trace them to the haunts where they are probably secreted. 

Information against Captain Caperton of a nature sufficiently strong was presented as 
to warrant his apprehension. I was obliged to release him, as he brought witnesses to 
swear that the arms belonged to Captain Stover, and the ones referred to had been turned 
in to the Quartermaster of the command, Benjamin F. Lippincott. The arms secured by 
me were, bj'^ the direction of General Sumner, commanding department, turned over to a 
company ehi-olled in Virginia City, on the night of the ninth, for the especial protection 
of the interests of the Union. Two companies were formed, of flfty men each, who, in 
addition to the oath of the club, were sworn to faithful obedience to the President 
and the laws of the Federal Government, to suppress rebellion, and to be ready at any 
moment to yield obedience to the President or other loyal authority under him for the 
preservation of the Union. 

Four hundred men are enrolled. Of these one hundred are armed; the remainder, 
from the want of arms, are unable to place themselves in a state of such efficiency as 
they desire, but hope the General commanding will soon furnish the requisite arms and 
ammunition to eiiahle them to carry out the object of their organization. After having 
taken such precautionary measures for the conservation of peace as 1 thought best, I 
returned to this post. 

In conclusion, I would call your attention to the faithful and efficient manner in which 
Lieutenant Baker and the men of his command carried out the orders given them under 
circumstances peculiarly embarrassing to an officer of the army. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

T. MOORE, 
Captain and Assistant Quartermaster. 

[Indorsement.] 

Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, June 19, 1861. 

The seizure of the arms as herein reported had the eff'ect to check at once the action of 
the Secessionists in Nevada Territory. 
Respectfullv forwarded to Army headquarters. 

E. V. SUMNER, 
Brigadier-General, U. S. Armj^, Commanding. 



General Orders,) Headquarters Department of 'Jo Pacific, 

No. 28. ) San Francisco, Ctc'^-r. "Ij-AsQI. 

Brig.-Gen. E. V. Sumner having been recalled for duty in the ^ast, the comLand of 
this department, in obedience to tlie instructions of the General-in-Chief, devolves ok Col. 
George Wright, of the Ninth Regiment of Infantry. 
Bv order of Colonel Wright. / 

y R. C. DRUM, 

A-Ssistant Adjutant-General. 

Headquart/rs Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, Cal., October 31, 1861. 

Col. E. D. Townsend, A. A. G., Headquarters of tlie Am. i/, Washington, B. C: 

Colonel : I deem it my duty to submit to the Genera ' -in-Chief the condition of affairs 
in the Southern District'of California, and the prudential measures which I consider of 
vital importance in suppressing any attempts of the R?bel forces to gain a foothold on the 
Pacific Coast. The United States troops in this department can repel any direct invasion 



20 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

of the State by the Rebels; biit the adjoining State of Sonera^ with a feeble government 
and sparse population, presents inducements of the strongest kind for the Rebels to march 
a force into that country and obtain jiossession of the fine port of Guaymas. This once 
accomplished, it destroys our commerce in the Gulf of California and interrupts the 
natural transit in and out of Arizona. The fondly cherished hopes and aim of the Rebels 
are to obtain a port on the Pacific. Timely interference on our part will frustrate their 
designs. To protect Arizona and reestablish the authority of the United States Govern- 
ment in that country, the occupation of Sonora is a military necessity. The amicable 
relations existing between our Government and that of Mexico woiil'd not necessarily 
be interrupted by our temporary occupation of Sonora; the design and object would be 
apparent. 

At all events, Sonora is de facto independent of the central government, and has been 
so for four years ; and I am assured by persons whose responsible positions and reputa- 
tion giiarantee their assertion, that the introduction of a force of United States troops 
would be hailed with joy, and meet with the moral and physical support of the entire 
population. We would not enter the country as conquerors, but as friends, to unite with, 
the Government and ]ieople in driving back ttie Southern Rebels, who are now threatening 
their country with ruin and devastation. 

I am informed by gentlemen of high standing that the introduction of United States 
troops into Sonora would be agreeable to the present Governor — Pesqueira. Under all 
the circumstances, to protect ourselves, I consider it imperative that we should take the 
initiative in this matter. Sonora is weak and unable to resist a Rebel force, and if our aid 
is withheld she will inevitablj'^ be overrun — virtually conc^uered — and the Rebels obtain 
possession of the port of Guaymas. 

Let two regiments, one of cavalry and one of infantry, with a light artillery battery, be 
promptly thrown into Guaymas, and all will be well. A discreet and prudent commander 
would conciliate the Government and people of Sonora, and, cooperating harmoniously 
together, no Rebel forces could enter the State. Peace and prosperity would reign within 
its borders. Once occupy Sonora, and the reestablishment of our authority in Arizona 
would be a work of easy accomplishment. 

The force necessary for the expedition is now on this coast, and could be transported to 
Guaymas by steamers in a week's time. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

G. WRIGHT, 

Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 



Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, Cal., December 10, 1861. 

Brig. -Gen. L. Thomas, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C: 

General: For several weeks past small parties have been organizing in the southern 

district of this State, with the avowed purpose of proceeding to Texas to aid the Rebels. 

To enable me to frustrate their designs, I have seized all the boats and ferries on the 

I Colorado River and have them strongly guarded. I have reinforced Port Yuma with 

J two more companies, one of infantry and one of cavalry ; also with two twelve-pounder 

j brass cannon. 

j Major Rigg, First California Volunteer Infantry, commanding United States troops 
near "Warner's Ranch, on the border of the desert between that place and Fort Yuma, 
, has arrested a man by the name of Showalter, a notorious Secessionist, and his party of 
/ seventeen men. I have ordered the whole party to be taken to Fort Yuma and held 
/ securely guarded until further orders. 

I have given positive orders that no person shall be permitted to pass beyond Yuma or 
cross the Colorado River without my special permit ; also that all persons approaching 
thefron(- ■.af,+-he-State shall be arrested and held in confinement, unless satisfactory 
evidence is produced of their fidelity to the Union. The time has arrived when individ- 
j;al rijrhts must give Way, and J shall not hesitate to adopt the most stringent measures 
to ".ash any attemjit i;t rebellicm within this department. I will not permit our Gov- 
ernment and institutions to be assailed by word or deed without promptly suppressing 
it by the strong arm of power, feeling assured that 1 shall be sustained by my Govern- 
ment and receive the cordial support of every patriotic citizen on this coast. 

Hoping that what I have donelor pr jpose to do may be approved by the General-in- 
Chief and Secretary of War, I haxke Hie honor to be your obedient servant, 

\, G. WRIGHT, 

\^ Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 

/ [Indorsement.] 
Please inform General Wright ^hat his course is fully approved. 

GEO. B. McCLELLAN, 

Adjutant-General. Major-General. 



PROPOSED INVASION OF CALIFORNIA. 21 

Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, December 20, 1861 — 2 p. m. 

General : My reports and returns already made, and which you will receive with this, 
will inform you of the strength of my command. The troops are in good condition, and 
improving in discipline and instruction. The country is generally quiet. In the south- 
western portion of the State the sympathizers with rebellion are numerous, and small 
parties are constantly organized with a view to pass the frontier; but thus far we have 
defeated their attempts. The most stringent measures have been adopted and enforced 
to prevent the Rebels from receiving any assistance from this country. 

I am now actively engaged in preparing the means of transportation and all the sup- 
plies necessary for the expedition which I am authorized to make under Colonel Carleton. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

G. WRIGHT, 
Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 

Brig.-Gen. L. Thomas, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C. 



Headquarters First California Volunteer Infantry, 
Camp Latham, near Los Angeles, Cal., December 23, 1861. 

All persons who have been arrested or who may be arrested in this State as Secession- 
ists or traitors to the country, will be kept in confinement at Fort Yuma until final action 
is had on each case. The garrison of that fort will be at once increased to nine compa- 
nies — one of artillery, six of infantry, and two of cavalrj^ Its defenses will be strength- 
ened and some heavy guns mounted, and it will be well supplied with ammunition, 
provisions, and forage. It is reported that the Navajo Indians obstruct the route from 
Albuquerque to Los Angeles, now important as the only one on which the daily mail 
from the States can be carried, that of the north being blocked up with snow ; that of the 
south being in possession of the Rebels at its eastern end, and on the Rio Grande. These 
Indians are therefore to be brought to terms. 

An expedition, consisting of seven companies, will move up the Colorado on Colonel 
Hoffman's trail. Three of these companies (infantry) will reoccupy Fort Navajo and 
reestablish the ferry. This force, as heretofore, will draw its supplies from Los Angeles. 
The other four — three of cavalry and one of infantry — will proceed on to Las Vegas, near 
the Potosi Mines, on the Salt Lake road, and establish a post at the old Mormon fort. 
This is preliminary to the movement, already ordered, of troops next summer to Fort 
Crittenden, near Salt Lake. The new post at Las Vegas will be known as Fort Baker. 

JAMES H. CARLETON, 

Colonel, First California Volunteers, Commanding. 



Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, January 29, 1862. 

General: Inclosed herewith is a copy of a telegraphic dispatch which I had the honor 
to transmit to you yesterday. Also, copy of extract from a letter from Mr. Thomas Rob- 
inson, a resident of Guaymas, Sonora. i'his extract was presented to me by Mr. Flint, 
of this citv, a gentleman of standing and reliability, connected with the steamship line 
between tliis city and Guaymas. From the best information in my possession at this 
moment, I am disposed to believe that the views taken by Mr. Robinson as to the intended 
movements of the Rebel forces are in the main correct. The large force I am assembling 
in the southern portion of this State, preparatory to an advance from Fort Yuma, Avill 
doubtless cause the Rebel leaders to deflect from their line of operations, and, if possible, 
gain the port of Guaymas. To frustrate all such attempts, I deem it of the first impor- 
tance that a strong force should be thrown into that city, aided by the presence of a few 
ships of war. I propose to open a correspondence with the Governor of Sonora on this 
subject, and I am assured by the best authority that our temporary occupation of Guay- 
mas, or any portion of the State, to protect it from the inroads of the Rebels, would be 
cheerfully acquiesced in by the authorities and people of that countrj\ The storm has 
somewhat abated for a few days past. To-day it is raining again, and the roads are not 
in a condition to advance my expeditionary forces to Fort Yuma. However, it is only a 
question of time ; we will be successful. I have no special news from the District of 
Oregon; all was quiet in that quarter when last heard from. The winter has been unus- 
ually severe, and the navigation of the Columbia River entirely obstructed by ice. The 
Legislature of California is now in session in this city, compelled to abandon Sacramento 
temporarily. 

Verj'' respectfully, vour most obedient servant, 

" ' G. WRIGHT, 

Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 

Brig.-Gen. L. Thomas, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C. 

3CT 



22 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

[Copy of letter from Thomas Robinson, Esq.] 
***************** 

Immediately on the receipt of this please call upon General Wriglit and state to him, 
in my name, that by express received by me to-day from Arizona and from most reliable 
sources, I have the following statement: "The Southern troops under Colonel Baylor, 
Military Governor, are expected at Tucson within ten days, numbering nine hundred 
men. It is said tney will immediately make a strong and continued campaign on the 
Apaches; reports say (which I fear is very probable) they will march into Sonora; in the 
meanwhile their headquarters will be at Calabazes, on the line. Agents to purchase flour, 
corn, etc., are actually in the Territory, under escort; contracts for hay have already been 
given out. Brigadier-General Sibley, C. S. A., with three thousand men, takes command 
in Arizona and New Mexico, and will immediately attack the United States forces in New 
Mexico. The Sovithern soldiers are full of tight; only the other day one hundred crossed 
the Jronada del Muerto, drove in the pickets of the United States "forces, and made forty 
prisoners." These same reports were afloat here three days since when I arrived, and 
to-day they are confirmed. There is no doubt in my mind, as to the desires and inten- 
tions of these Southern forces. What the devil do they care for Arizona, without one 
hundred soiils in it and nothing worth having there! They wish to march into Sonora, 
as is intimated from many sources, and take quiet possession^ for we are not at present 
in condition to resist, having just passed through a very sore trial, although with success. 
If they once get possession of this State and its posts, the North may just" as well give up 
the complete line through from Gulf of Mexico to Gulf of California, and it will require 
a supreme effort then to evict them. This is no newspaper talk, but something certain, 
and the only way to avoid a most serious and difficult position is for the United States 
Government to send, without a moment's delay, the necessary forces to act. 

Let me request of you to urge upon General Wright the necessity of this step. Let one 
thousand men, properly equipped, be sent immediately to Guaymas, officered by gentle- 
men of prudence and judgment, and I will see that they get through immediately to 
Arizona. The Government and people will be too happy to see such a friend coming to 
their rescue. If necessary, let the General telegraph to Washington for the necessary 
powers. But he must act promptly, and I will guarantee his full success. And by adopt- 
ing these measures he will have acquired a victory which will be more than galling to the 
South. 

***************** 

I will take the contract for transporting troops and equipments to Arizona and furnish- 
ing everything necessary. You are aware the Congress of Mexico have given a cordial 
permit for transit of troops through Sonora, and our State will be pleased to forward the 
views of the United States Government or its representatives. You can assure General 
Wright that all my influence and that of my friends will be used in favor of his forces. 
Yours sincerely, 

THOMAS ROBINSON. 



Headqttartees Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, April 30, 1862. 

General: Major Drum is still absent inspecting the troops at and near Fort Yuma. 
My latest dates from him are of the fourteenth instant. It is probable that Colonel Carle- 
ton is now at or in advance of Fort Yuma. Colonel Bowie's Fifth Infantry, California 
Volunteers, is concentrating at Fort Y''uma as a reserve. Carleton's movement will sweep 
the predatory bands of Baylor and Riley out of Arizona and break up their plan of ob- 
taining a foothold in Sonora, and then with the well appointed force under his command, 
strengthened, if necessary, by the fine reserve regiment of Bowie, I have no apprehensions 
as to the result in any conflict with the Rebels this side of the Rio Grande. 

Outwardly everything is quiet in this country, but I know that there are many men on 
this coast who are traitors at heart, and who aVe at this moment writhing under the de- 
feats of the Rebels. They are harmless now, however, because so greatly in the minority ; 
but such men require close surveillance. 

In the southern portion of this State there are more sympathizers with the Rebels than 
anywhere else, and I have now ordered Colonel Forman, of the Fourth Infantry, Califor- 
nia Volunteers, now in camp at Sacramento, to proceed by the next steamer to San Pedro 
with his headquarters and three companies. The Colonef will take post at Camp Latham, 
near Los Angeles, where we have already four companies of the Second Cavalry. 

It has been my aim not to create any unnecessary alarm in the public mind on this 
coast, but to watch closely the progress'of events and be ever ready to crush any attempt 
to raise the standard of rebellion on the Pacific. 

You will observe by my General Orders No. 17 that I am gradually drawing the cords 
a little closer around treason. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

G. WRIGHT, 
Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 

Brig.-Gen. L. Thomas, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C. 



PROPOSED INVASION OF TEXAS. 23 



PROPOSED INVASION OF TEXAS VIA MEXICO. 



When the first call for troops was made it was understood that they 
would be used to guard the overland mail route, via Salt Lake. But it 
was afterwards decided to use them for an invasion of the State of Texas 
by the way of Sonora and Chihuahua, landing at Mazatlan or Guaymas, 
in Sonora. Permission was obtained from the Governors of those Mexi- 
can States, and from the Mexican Government. General Sumner was 
assigned to the command, and the troops to compose the expedition 
were selected. The following is the correspondence relating to it: 

[Telegraph to outer station, thence by pony express and telegraph.] 

Headquarters of the Army, 
Washington, August 16, 1861. 

Brigadier-General E. V. Sumner, U. 8. A., San Francisco: 

You are to command an expedition into Texas, via Mazatlan, to be composed of two 
batteries and ten foot companies of one regiment of volunteer cavalry and four regiments 
of volunteer infantry. Brigadier-General J. W. Denver will be associated with you, and 
take with you Captain K. L. Ogden, Assistant Quartermaster. A requisition has been 
made on the Governor for the volunteers. Commuunicate with him. Particulars by mail. 

WINFIELD SCOTT. 



Headquarters of the Army, 
Washington, August 16, 1861. 

Brigadier-General E. V. Sumner, U. S. Arrny, Commanding, etc., San Francisco, Cal.: 

Sir: A telegram was sent you this day in relation to an expedition to Texas, and the 
General-in-Chief directs me to write more fully in regard to it, as follows : 

You are to fit out an expedition in San Francisco, preparing for embarkation thence 
the necessary supplies and land transportation, to land at Mazatlan, and march thence to 
western Texas and regain the public property in that State and draw off insurgent troops 
from Arkansas, Missouri, etc. J. W. Denver, Esq., of California, has been appointed 
Brigadier-General U. S. Volunteer Service, and will be under your command. Captain 
R. L. Ogden, appointed Assistant Quartermaster, and now in San Francisco, will also be 
subject to yoiir orders. A requisition lias been made on the Governor of California for one 
regiment volunteer cavalry and four regiments volunteer infantry, and he has been 
requested to report them to you when ready. You will please confer with him in rela- 
tion to them. You will add to this force two batteries of regular artillery and ten com- 
panies regular foot, to be collected from such points as may be most advisable. Orders 
will no doubt go to you from the War Department concerning the contract to be made 
with the steamship company. The General will only say on this subject that it will be 
advisable to make provision as early as possible for having coal for the transports placed 
in depot at ^Mazatlan. On leaving tlie Department of the Pacific, turn over the command 
to Colonel [George] Wright, Ninth Infantry. 

1 am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

E. D. townsend; 

Assistant Adjutant-General. 



Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, Cal., August 30, 1861. 

Lieutenant- Colonel E. D. Townsend, Assistant Adjutant-General: 

Colonel: I have received the General-in-Chief's dispatch informing me that I am to 
command an exi^edition to Texas. While I feel flattered by this selection, and willing 
to undertake it, especially on account of the almost insuperable difficulties that will 
attend it, I feel it to be a duty to the General to let him know precisely the state of things 
on this coast. Up to the time of the reverse in Virginia everything was perfectly safe 
here. There has always been a strong Secession party in this State, but it was overawed 



24 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

and kept quiet. Since that news was received these people have been getting much 
bolder, and I have found it necessary to take strong measures to repress anv attempt on 
their part to thwart the Government. I think I can do it; but if they should succeed in 
electing their candidate for Governor, of which they are very confident, I shall not be able 
to do it without the most stringent measures. The Union party here is divided, and neither 
portion of it will sacrifice their trifling local interests for the public good; and as the dis- 
unionists are very active and zealous, I am by no means certain that they will not carry 
the election. Their numbers are variously estimated from twenty-five thousand to forty- 
five thousand voters. 

1 shall get the force authorized to be raised here into my hands as soon as possible ; 
but it will take some time to do this. It is a very different thing to raise volunteers in a 
State where there is a strong party opposed to the Government from what it is where all 
are loyal. I shall lose no time in organizing this force and getting it ready for any emer- 
gency. 

In marching to Texas I would respectfully represent that Guaymas will be a much 
better point of departure tlian Mazatlan. The roads and country from the former are 
much better than from the latter, and the distance is but little more. I suppose, however, 
that the route must depend upon the one taken by the Secessionists if they should move 
in this direction. 

If they should make no movement hitherward, and the object of my expedition should 
be to recover and hold Texas, I would respectfully suggest whether it would not be a 
more feasible plan to take my command by sea to some point in Texas, there to meet 
such an additional force from the North as the commanding General might think neces- 
sary. This plan would give me the necessary munitions, which it would be impossible 
for "me to carry across the continent; besides tliis, a march at the usual rate across those 
deserts would inevitably unfit volunteers for some time for efiicient service in the field. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

E. V. SUMNER, 
Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 



Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, September 7, 1861. 

Col. E. D. Townsend, Asst. Adjt.-Gen., Hdqrs. of the Army, Washington, D. C: 

Colonel : Since my letter to you of the thirtieth ultimo the Union party has triumphed 
in the election, which makes things much safer here. There are about twenty thousand 
Secession voters in this State, anci the dissolute and loose portion of this party are con- 
gregating in some force in the southern counties, in the hope of receiving support from 
Texas. 1 am reinforcing the regular troops in that quarter as speedily as possible, in 
order to check this movement. The great and unaccountable success in Arizona and 
New Mexico will no doubt embolden them, and it is by no means certain that they will 
not make some attempt in this direction, and if they should ever get an organized force 
into this State, as a rallying jioint for all the Secession element, it would inevitably 
inaugurate a civil war here immediately. 

I stated to you that I thought Guayrnas would be a better point of departure from this 
coast than jNIazatlan. This was on the supposition that 1 was to enter Texas on the 
northwestern border. I find on further inquiry that this route would be next to imprac- 
ticable with a large force, for the want of water, grass, etc. I fitted out General Kearny's 
command of one hundred men on the Rio Grande in the fall of 1846. I gave him the 
best of everything in the regiment, and yet when he arrived on this coast this small force 
was completely broken down and unable to contend successfully with the Californians 
who attacked him. If the object of the march is to move through Mexico and reach 
Texas low down on the Rio Grande, the best point of departure would be San Bias. 

I inclose a letter from Mr. Beale, the Surveyor-General of this State. His knowledge 
of Mexico is founded on his having actually traveled over it, and he is a sensible and 
reliable man. 

From Guadalaxara I could make my way north, but it would be a very long and severe 
march, and with all the care I could take I could not feel sure of having an army of vol- 
unteers in fighting order when I reached Texas. I am, however, prepared to undertake 
it, and, if it is not impossible, the object of the expedition will be attained. I took the 
liberty in my last letter of suggesting whether it would not be better to take my com- 
mand by sea to some point in Texas, there to be joined by a force from the North with 
all the "necessary munitions, etc. If the main object of the expedition is to recover 
Texas, I would respectfully ask the General-in-Cnief to reconsider this matter for a 
moment. I should feel great confidence in such an expedition, and I believe, with the 
additional force the General would give me, that I could recover and hold Texas, and 
thus make an important diversion in favor of the operations on the Mississippi. This 
plan would also have another great advantage. It would keep the troops here for some 
time while undergoing the necessary discipline, and still I should reach Texas much 
sooner than by the overland route. I think the presence of these troops here for a time 
would put down this restless and unscrupulous Secession party, and prevent any attempt 
from Texas. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

E. V. SUMNER, 
Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 



PKOPOSED INVASION OF TEXAS. 25 

Headquarters Army, September 16, 1861. 

Brig. -Gen. E. V. Sumner, U. S. A., Commanding Department Pacific, San Francisco: 

Sir : A dispatch was sent you by the pony express the tenth instant and a duplicate 
the fourteenth, directing you to suspend tlie expedition, via Mazathm, to western Texas, 
and to prepare to send all the regular troo^is, except four companies of artillery, by 
steamer to New York. 

The General-in-Chief directs that you accordingly leave one company (Third Artillery) 
at Fort Vancouver and three companies in the harbor of San Francisco. The remainder 
of the regulars j^ou will send forward by steamer to New York as fast as they can be 
collected for embarkation. 

The cavalry and artillery horses will be disposed of in such manner as may be deemed 
best for the public interest. The arms and equipments of the troops will be brought with 
them; also, ten thousand of the muskets remaining in store. The field batteries and 
tlieir equipments will be left behind. You will send orders to Colonel Wright to repair to 
San Francisco to relieve you in command of the department, and after his arrival will 
proceed to the headquarters of the Army and report in person. 

Brig.-Gen. J. W. Denver, IT. S. Volunteer Service, will oe ordered to California to relieve 
Colonel Wright, who will then proceed to report in person at Army headquarters. 

The following dispatch was sent you this day by pony express and also by telegraph : 

" Besides the volunteer force called for trom California to guard the overland mail route, 
the five regiments (one of cavalry and four of infantry) originally ordered will be organ- 
ized and held ready for service on the Pacific Coast and elsewhere, according to future 
orders to be given. 

"1 send a copy of this to the Governor of California." 
I am, sir, etc., 

E. D. TOWNSEND, 
Assistant Adjutant-General. 

Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, September 17, 1861. 

Col. E. D. TowNSEND, Asst. Adjt.-Gen., Hdqrs. of the Army, Washington, D. C: 

Colonel: I am compelled to assume the high responsibility of changing the destina- 
tion of the troops ordered to the plains. The disaffection in 'the southern part of this 
State is increasing and becoming dangerous, and it is indispensably necessary to throw 
reinforcements into that section immediately. The Rebels are organizing, collecting sup- 
plies, and evidently preparing to receive a force from Texas, and the worst feature of the 
affair is this : They have managed to seduce the native Californians by telling them that 
they will be ruined by taxes to maintain the war. 

I shall establish a strong camp at Warner's Ranch on the road to Fort Yuma, which 
will support that post, prevent the gathering of Rebels in that vicinity, and be prepared 
to repel any force advancing through Arizona. 

The onlj^ available troops I have at this moment are those raised for the overland mail 
route. These troops are now ready, whereas I could not get any of the last requisition 
ready before a month. Another consideration is this : The Fourth Infantry, now in the 
southern part of this State, are the only available regulars for my expedition. I cannot 
withdraw another man from Oregon or from any post in California, and it would be mad- 
ness to withdraw this regiment from its present dutj^ without replacing it with other 
troops. No evil will result from this change, as no protection from the Indians is neces- 
sary for the mail. Some of the principal agents have said to me that they did not need 
any protection ; nevertheless, I have ordered a company of dragoons at Fort Churchill to 
make a march as far out on the mail route as Ruby Valley, which is bej^ond all the 
Indians from whom there is anything to apprehend. I inclose a copy of my instructions 
for this movement. I shall place Colonel Wright in command of all the "troops in the 
disaffected district till I am ready to leave with the southern expedition. 

I would respectfully ask an early reply to my letters of the thirtieth ultimo and seventh 
instant, in which I took the liberty of asking "the General-in-Chief to let me proceed by 
sea, via the isthmus, to Brazos Santiago. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

E. V. SUMNER, 
Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 



Department of State, 
Washington, September 20, 1861. 
Hon. Simon Cameron, Secretary of War: 

Sir: I have the honor to inclose an extract from a dispatch of the twenty-eighth 
ultimo, received from Mr. Corwin, relative to an apprehended invasion of Sonora l)y the 
insurgents of the United States, and to recommend that the subject be submitted to the 
General-in-Chief commanding the Armies of the United States for such directions as may 
be deemed most proper, asking at the same time whether a force of ten thousand men 
would not be a reasonable one for the service to be performed. 
I am, sir, your obedient servant, 

WILLIAM H. SEWARD. 



26 RECOED OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

[Indorsement.] 

Headquarters Army, 
Washington, October 5, 1861. 

The General-in-Chief directs me to say, in reply to the question of the honorable Sec- 
retary of State, that he deems the force named by the Secretary a proper one. 
Respectfully submitted. 

E. D. TOWNSEND, 
Assistant Adjutant-General. 
[Inclosure.] 

Mr. Corwin to Mr. Seivard. 

U. S. Legation, Mexico, August 28, 1861. 
************ 

Mr. Pickett, Commissioner from what he denominates "The Confederate States," is 
still here. He and three Southern persons sojourning in this city were engaged last night 
in rejoicing over the victory at Bull Run and Manassas Gap. The sketch of that battle 
in the New York "Herald" of the twenty-third of July reached here yesterday. The 
paper came here from Havana by private conveyance. Mr. Pickett has learned that 
Mexico had granted the United States the privilege of marching troops through Mexican 
territory to Arizona. He has informed the Government here that this will be considered 
as offensive to the " Confederate States," as New Mexico has placed herself under the pro- 
tection of those States. He has said, in private conversation, "If this decree is not 
annulled, Mexico will lose the State of Tamaulipas in sixty days." 

By looking on any map of Mexico it will be seen that Tamaulipas, Neuva Leon, Coa- 
huila. Chihuahua, and Soiiora all adjoin Texas or New Mexico. Tamaulipas is easily 
approached by her port, Tampico, on the Mexican Gulf, and also bv land from Texas. 
All the others of these States can be reached by land from Texas or IS'ew Mexico. Guav- 
mas is the great port on the Gulf of California, from and to which shipments are made 
for the States of Sonora and Chihuahua, and also to our Territory of New Mexico, 
including Arizona. It is, therefore, reasonable enough to conclude that the United States 
troops from California could be landed at Guaymas in seven days by steamer, and with 
a safe passage through Sonora could confront any Rebel force operating in Arizona or 
New Mexico proper, and also be in a j>osition to act against any filibustering enemy 
which might attack any of the Mexican States bordering on Texas. It is no doubt the 
design of the "Southern Confederation," whenever it can, to seize all of these States; 
indeed, to possess itself of the entire Tierra Caliente of Mexico, that being well adapted 
to slave labor. 

If Mexico should be attacked under pretense that she had justly offended the Confed- 
erate States by the grant of passage through Sonora, every obligation of honor would 
seem to require that our troops should be ready to enforce our laws auainst filibustering 
expeditions from our Territories against the Territories of a nation with whom we are at 
peace. Such troops would at the same time be efficient to restore our lawful dominion 
m Texas and New Mexico. Upper California, Oregon, and Washington Territory could 
furnish a respectable force for all these purposes, which could be conveyed by water to 
Guaymas, and from thence by land over good roads to their proper points of operation. 

The States bordering on Texas and our New Mexican frontier are very weak in popula- 
tion and wealth, and could be conquered by a comparatively small force. Tamaulipas 
has only one hundred and eight thousand of all ages, races, and sexes. The entire pop- 
ulation of the five Mexican States above named is stated in the most reliable census to be 
six hundred and twenty-eight thousand of all ages, sexes, and races, covering an area of 
sixty-seven thousand five hundred and sixty-tliree square miles. I am informed that 
recent discoveries of mineral wealth in Sonora and Chiliuahua have invited large bodies 
of men from California to those two States. It is suspected that they are of a class easily 
induced to unite with the Southern Rebels in an attack on these and their neighboring 
Mexican States, as well as to promote Southern pretensions in New Mexico and Texas. _ 

I suggest whether a prudent forecast would not invite our Government to raise in Cali- 
fornia and Oregon a force which should pass from Guaymas through Sonora to our pos- 
sessions in New Mexico and Arizona for the purposes suggested above. 

The proposition to send the California troops out of the State created 
considerable excitement and feeling, and an earnest appeal was made to 
the Secretary of War to countermand the order and keep the troops in 
California. 



PROPOSED INVASION OF TEXAS. 27 

The following is the letter to the Secretary of War, signed by sixty- 
five business men and firms of San Francisco: 

San Francisco, Cal., August 28, 1861. 
Hon. Simon Cameron, Secretary of War: 

Dear Sir: Since the arrival of the pony express, with Washington dates of August 
sixteenth, a rumor has been in circulation that an enlistment of five thousand additional 
men from this State has been ordered for service in Texas, to wliich State they were to 

Eroceed with all convenient dispatcli, under command of General Sumner. This report 
as caused the most lively apprehensions of danger in our midst, and so deeply are we 
impressed that your department is not sensible of the true condition of affairs upon this 
coast that we most respectfully ask the rescinding of so much of the order as calls for the 
withdrawal of the troops to be raised, and that transfers General Sumner to another field 
of duty, and thereto we present the following reasons : 

A majority of our present State officers are undisguised and avowed Secessionists, and 
the balance, being utterly hostile to the administration, are advocates of a peace policy 
at any sacrifice, upon terms that would not be rejected even by South Carolina. Every 
appointment made by our Governor within the past three months unmistakably indi- 
cates his entire sympathy and cooperation with those plotting to sever California from 
her allegiance to the Union, and that, too, at the hazard of civil war. 

About three eighths of our citizens are natives of slaveholding States, and almost a unit 
in this crisis. The hatred and bitterness towards the Union and Union men, manifested 
so pointedly in the South and so stronglj^ evinced on the field of Itattle, is no more intense 
there than here. These men are never without arms, have wholly laid aside their busi- 
ness, and are deVoting their time to plotting, scheming, and organizing. Our advices, 
obtained with great prudence and care, show us that there are upwards of sixteen thou- 
sand " Knights of the Golden Circle" in this State, and that they are still organizing, even 
in our most loval districts. 

The fruits of so much devotion to the cause of secession and intriguing for its promo- 
tion are manifested in the securing of certain timid and ease-loving classes, hailing from 
free States, styling themselves Union men, but opposed to the war. Thus is secession 
consummated. Another class, by no means small, powerful through its wealth, has affili- 
ated with the disunionists to avoid and oppose paying a pittance towards maintaining 
the integrity of the Government in its hour of trial. The native Spanish race have been 
persuaded that all real estate complications will meet prompt adjustment at the hands of 
another organization ; and the unwarranted doubts, difficulties, and delaj'S that have 
characterized the action of the administrative branch of the Government in the final 
adjustment of titles under Mexican grants furnish an argument to ignorant men that 
human ingenuity cannot answer. 

The squatter and lawless trespasser, having litigated with the landed proprietor for 
years in his own name and that of his Government, is made to believe that no change 
can result to his disadvantage ; that principles established by the Federal Courts will be 
overturned, and Mexican grants only known in history. 

Upon these several subjects, which comprise the prominent points of our present posi- 
tion, electioneering pamphlets, resolutions, platforms, speeches, and circulars are dis- 
tributed with an unflagging industry, and are placed in the hands of every voter in the 
State. 

The special object of this extraordinary effort is to carry the State election, which takes 
place one week from to-day, September the fourth. In this campaign the Union voters 
are unfortunately divided, and the best devised plans have failed to unite them. The 
Secessionists, the Douglas party, and the Republicans have each a full ticket in the field, 
and we are overwhelmed with apprehensions lest the enemies of the country may tri- 
umph. Should such be the case, civil strife would be forced upon our loyal population, 
and the most prosperous State in the Union would be desolated and destroj'cd. The 
frightful scenes now transpiring in Missouri would be rivaled by the atrocities enacted 
upon the Pacific Coast. Loyalty and patriotism embrace within their firm grasp the 
body of the wealth and intelligence of California, and an attempt at a severance will be 
contested with inflexible determination. 

We need not remind you of the vast importance of preserving California to the Union. 
Its great geographical extent, its mineral and agricultural wealth, the fact that it is our 
chief seat of empire upon the Pacific, and that its ]>olitical action will exercise a powerful, 
if not controlling, influence upon its neighliors at the North, imperatively demand that 
no precaution should be neglected to insure its fidelity. 

We need only appeal to the examples furnished by Missouri, and even Virginia, to 
show that the efforts of a comparativel.y small number of audacious and unscrupulous 
men are sufficient to precipitate an uiiwilling population into disunion, or at least to 
inaugurate civil war. 

If, unfortunately, from the causes we have mentioned, the secession minority in this 
State should ol)tain control, you will at once perceive with what power for mischief it 
would be armed, and how imminent is our danger. To retain a State in its allegiance is 
a thousandfold more easy than to overcome disloyalty affecting to act under State 
authority. 

Nothing will more certainly check treasonable attempts than a conviction of their 



28 



RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 



hopelessness. To deprive us of the mihtary support of the Government at this time is to 
hold out a direct encouragement to traitors. We beg most earnestly to remind you that 
in our case an "ounce of preventive is worth a pound of cure." 
Very respectfully, yours, 



Robt. C. Rogers. 

Macondray & Co. 

Jno. Sime"& Co. 

J. B. Thomas. 

W. W. Stow. 

Horace P. James. 

Geo. F. Bragg & Co. 

Flint, Peabody & Co. 

Wm. B. Johnson. 

D. 0. Mills. 

H. M. Newhall & Co. 

Henry Schmildell. 

Murphy, Grant & Co. 

Wm. T. Coleman & Co. 

DeWitt, Kittle & Co. 

Richard M. Jessup. 

Graves, Williams & Buckley. 

Donohoe, Ralston & Co. 

H. M. Nuzlee. 

Geo. C. Shreve & Co. 

Peter Donahue. 

Kellogg, Hewston & Co. 



Moses Ellis & Co. 
R. D. W. Davis & Co. 
L. B. Benchley & Co. 
Wm. A. Dana. 
Jones, Dixon & Co. 
J. Y. Halleck & Co. 
Forbes & Babcock. 

A. T. Lawton. 

Geo. J. Brooks & Co. 
Jno. B. Newton & Co. 
Chas. W. Brooks & Co. 
James Patrick & Co. 
Locke & Montague. 
Janson, Bond & Co. 
Jennings & Brewster. 
Treadwell & Co. 
William Alvord & Co. 
Shattuck &. Hendley. 
Randell & Jones. 
J. B. Weir & Co. 

B. C. Hand & Co. 
O. H. Griffin & Bro. 



Dodge & Shaw. 
Tubbs & Co. 
J. Whitney, Jr. 
C. Adolphe Low & Co. 
Haynes & Lawton. 
J. D. Farnell. 
C. E. Hitchcock. 
Geo. Howes & Co. 
Sam. Merritt. 
Jacob Underbill & Co. 
Morgan, Stone & Co. 
J. W. Brittan. 
T. H. & J. S. Bacon. 
R. B. Swain & Co. 
Fargo & Co. 
Nathaniel Page. 
Stevens, Baker & Co. 
R. E. Brewster & Co. 
Tay, Brooks & Backus, 
win. Norris. 
E. H. Parker. 



The foregoing letter seems to have had the desired effect, for orders 
were soon issued directing the suspension of preparations for the expe- 
dition. A copy of the order is given below. The reflection on the 
Governor's loyalty seems to have been uncalled for; there is no evidence 
in the records that indicates that "his entire sympathy and cooperation, 
were with those plotting to sever California from her allegiance to the 
Union at the hazard of civil war." He seems to have done promptly 
everything required of him by the Government, and the officers he 
appointed and commissioned in the volunteer forces from this State 
were, without exception, loyal to the Government and faithful in every 
position in which they were placed. 

On the very day the above letter was written he wrote as follows to 
General Sumner: 

State of California, Executive Department, 
Sacramento, August 28, 1861. 
Brig.-Gen. E. V. Sumner, U. S. Army: 

General: Your letter of yesterday is received. I regret exceedingly that I have been 
unable to visit San Francisco during the last week, as I have been most anxious to confer 
with you in regard to the recent requisition. You will see that I have lost no time in 
making the call. I am satisfied from the assurances received from the most populous 
counties of the State that in two weeks we will have the requisite number of men to fill 
the requisition. 

Enlisting is going on rapidly, and the fife and drum are heard in every village. 

1 have repeatedly assured you that none other than those loyal to the General Govern- 
ment would be offered bearing "commissions" of the State. And surely none entertain- 
ing disloyal sentiments to the Federal Government would desire to place themselves in a 
position "at once false and dishonorable. As I have repeatedly assured you, there will be 
no clashing of sentiment on this head. 

_ The volunteer soldiery of this State desire to be commanded by their own distinguished 
citizens, as far as possible; and I assure you, with all candor, that if it were differently 
understood we would find it exceedingly difficult, if not impossible, to fill the demand of 
the President. 

Notwithstanding the pressure of business now pouring in upon me, 1 will on to-morrow 
visit San Francisco for the purpose of having a free and frank interview with you on this 
subject. 

1 am. General, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JOHN G. DOWNEY, 

Governor. 



PROPOSED INVASION OF TEXAS. 29 

The following is the further correspondence regarding the Texas exi^e- 

dition: 

Headquarters of the Army, 
Washington, September 9, 1861. 

Brig. -Gen. E. V. Sumner, U. S. A., Commanding Department of the Pacific, San Francisco, 
'Cat.: 

Sir: Lieutenant-General Scott, with the assent of the Secretary of War, directs that 
vou suspend preparations fot- the expedition against western "Texas, via ^lazatlan. 
Instructions will be sent you by the next mail for other purposes. Prepare the regular 
troops, except four companies of artillery, to come by steam to New York. Two regi- 
ments of volunteers will replace the regulars. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

E. D. TOWNSEND, 

Assistant Adjutant-General. 



Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, September 28, 1861. 

Col. E. D. TowNSEND, Assistant Adjutant-General, Washington: 

Colonel: I have just received the commanding General's dispatch countermanding 
the expedition to Texas, and I do feel greatly relieved thereat. I was willing to under- 
take it, but I could not feel sure that I could carry it through, for the difficulties were all 
but insuperable. 

You will have received my letter of the seventeenth instant, informing the General 
that I had changed the destination of the troops ordered on the overland route. If I 
could have anticipated this last order I should not have made this change, for I should 
have had troops enough without them for the disaffected part of the State. As this change 
has already been made, and nearly all of Colonel Carleton's command is now in the south- 
ern part of the State, I do not think it advisable to bring them back, at a heavy expense, 
to send them on the overland route this fall, especially as their presence there is not 
necessary for the protection of the mail. A company of the First Cavalry has left Fort 
Churchill to march to Ruby Vallej' and back. Colonel Carleton's command can move 
out on the overland road in March next, and thus save an immense expense in forage for 
this winter. The hay would cost $60 a ton and the barley $9 96 a bushel. 

I would respectfully ask the General's sanction for this arrangement. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

E. V. SUMNER, 
Brigadier-General, U. S. Armj^, Commanding. 

[Indorsement.] 

War Department, October 28, 1861. 
Approved: 

SIMON CAMERON, 

Secretary of War. 



Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, Cal., October 31, 1861. 

Col. E. D. TowNSEND, A. A. G., Headqxiarters of the Army, Washington, D. C: 

Colonel: 1 deem it my duty to submit to the General-in-Chief the condition of affairs 
in the Southern District of California, and the prudential measures which I consider of 
vital importance in suppressing any attempts of the Rebel forces to gain a foothold on 
the Pacific Coast. The United States troops in this department can repel any direct 
invasion of the State by the Rebels, but the adjoining State of Sonora, witli a feeble gov- 
ernment and sparse population, presents inducements of the strongest kind for the Rebels 
to march a force into that country and obtain possession of the fine port of Guaymas. 
This once accomplished, it destroys our commerce in the Gulf of California, and inter- 
rupts the natural transit in and olit of Arizona. The fondly cherished hopes and aim of 
the Rebels are to obtain a port on the Pacific. Timely interference on our part will frus- 
trate their designs. To protect Arizona, and reestablish the authoritv of the United 
States Government in that country, the occupation of Sonora is a military necessity. 
The amicable relations existing between our Government and that of Mexico would pot 
necessarily be interrupted by our temporary occupation of Sonora; the design and object 
would be apparent. 

At all events, Sonora is de facto independent of the central Government, and has been 
so for four years, and I am assured by persons whose responsible positions and reputa- 
tion guarantee their assertion, that the introduction of a force of United States troops 
would be hailed with joy, and meet with the moral and physical support of the entire 



30 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

population. We would not enter the country as conquerors, but as friends, to unite with 
the Government and people in driving Imck tlie Southern Eebels, who are now threatening 
their country with ruin and devastation. 

I am informed by gentlemen of high standing that the introduction of United States 
troops into Sonora would be agreeable to the })resent Governor — Pesqueira. Under all 
tiae circumstances, to protect ourselves, 1 consider it imperative that we should take the 
initiative in this matter. Sonora is weak and unable to resist a Rebel force, and if our aid 
is withheld she will inevitably be overrun— virtually conquered — and the Rebels obtain 
possession of the port of Guaymas. 

Let two regiments, one of cavalry and one of infantry, with a light artillery battery, 
be promptly thrown into Guaymas, and all will be well. A discreet and prudent com- 
mander woidd conciliate the Government and people of Sonora, and cooperating har- 
moniously together, no Rebel forces could enter the State. Peace and prosperity would 
reign within its borders. Once occupy Sonora, and the reestablishment of our authority 
in Arizona would be a work of easy accomplishment. 

The force necessary for the expedition is now on this coast, and could be transported to 
Guaymas by steamers in a week's time. 

I have the honor to be, verj'^ respectfully, your obedient servant, 

G. WRIGHT, 

Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 



Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, January 28,. 1862. 

Brig. -Gen. L. Thomas, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C: 

Prom the latest and most reliable information, I am more strongly than ever impressed 
with the importance of an early and prompt occupation of Guaymas. 

G. WRIGHT, 

Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 



Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, January 29, 1862. 

General : Inclosed herewith is a copy of a telegraphic dispatch which I had the honor 
to transmit to you yesterday. Also, copy of extract from a letter from Mr. Thomas Rob- 
inson, a resident of Guaymas, Sonora. This extract was presented to me by Mr. Flint, 
of this city, a gentleman of standing and reliability, connected with the steamship line 
between this place and Guaymas. From the best information in my possession at this 
moment, 1 am disposed to believe that the views taken by Mr. Robinson as to the intended 
movements of the Rebel forces are in the main correct. The large force I am assembling 
in the southern portion of this State, preparatory to an advance from Fort Yuma, will 
doubtless cause the Rebel leaders to deflect from their line of operations, and, if possible, 
gain the port of Guaymas. To frustrate all such attempts, I deem it of the first impor- 
tance that a strong force should be thrown into that city, aided by the presence of a few 
ships of war. I propose to open a correspondence with the Governor of Sonora on this 
subject, and I am assured by the best authority that our temporary occupation of Guay- 
mas, or any portion of the State, to protect it'from the inroads of the Rebels, would be 
cheerfully acquiesced in by the authorities and people of that country. The storm has 
somewhat abated for a few days past. To-day it is raining again, and the roads are not 
in a condition to advance my expeditionary forces to Fort Yuma. However, it is only 
a question of time ; we will be successful. I have no special news from the district of 
Oregon; all was quiet in that quarter when last heard from. The winter has been 
unusually severe, and the navigation of the Columbia River entirely obstructed by ice. 
The Legislature of California is now in session in this city, compelled to abandon Sacra- 
mento temporarily. 

Very respectfully, your most obedient servant, 

G. WRIGHT, 
Brigadiei'-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 

Brig.-Gen. L. Thomas, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C. 

[Copy of letter from Thomas Robinson, Esq.] 
**************** -x- 
Immediately on the receipt of this please call upon General Wright and state to him, 
in my name, that by express received by me to-day from Arizona and from most reliable 
sources, I have the following statement : "The Southern troops, under Colonel Baylor, 
Militai'y Governor, are expected at Tucson within ten days, numbering nine hundred 
men. It is said they will immediately make a strong and continued campaign on the 



PKOPOSED INVASION OF TEXAS. 31 

Apaches. Reports say (which I fear is very probable) they will march into Sonora. In the 
meanwhile their headquarters will be at Calabazes, on the line. Agents to purchase flour, 
corn, etc., are actually in the Territory, under escort; contracts for hay have already been 
given out. Brigadier-General Sibley, C. S. A., with three thousand men, takes command 
m Arizona and New Mexico, and will immediately attack the United States forces in 
New Mexico. The Southern soldiers are full of fight ; only the other day one hundred 
crossed the Jronada del Muerto, drove in the pickets of the l/nited States forces, and made 
forty prisoners." Tliese same reports were afloat here three days since, when I arrived, 
and to-day they are confirmed. There is no doubt in my mind as to the desires and inten- 
tions of these Southern forces. What the devil do th'ey care for Arizona, without one 
hundred souls in it, and nothing worth having there ! They wish to march into Sonora, 
as is intimated from many sources, and take quiet possession, for we are not at present 
in condition to resist, having just passed through a very sore trial, although with success. 
If they once get possession of this State and its posts, the North may just as well give up 
the cohiplete line through from Gulf of Mexico to Gulf of California, and it will require 
a supreme effort then to evict them. This is no newspaper talk, but something certain, 
and the only way to avoid a most serious and difficult position is for the United States 
Government to send without a moment's delay the necessary forces to act. 

Let me request of you to urge upon General Wright the necessity of this step. Let one 
thousand men, properly equipped, be sent immediately to Guaymas, officered by gentle- 
men of prudence and judgment, and I will see that they get through immediately to Ari- 
zona. The Government and people will be too happy to see such a friend coming to their 
rescue. If necessary, let the General telegraph to Washington for the necessary powers. 
But he must act promptly, and I will guarantee his full success. And by adopting these 
measures he will have acquired a victory which will be more than galling to the South. 
***************** 

I will take the contract for transporting troops and equiimients to Arizona and fur- 
nishing everything necessary. You are aware the Congress of Mexico has given a cordial 
permit for transit of troops through Sonora, and our State will be pleased to forward the 
views of the United States Government or its representatives. You can assure General 
Wright that all my influence and that of my friends will be used in favor of his forces. 
Yours, sincerely, 

THOMAS ROBINSON. 



32 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 



THE CALIFORNIA COLUMN. 



After the proposition to invade Texas, via Sonora and Chihuahua, was 
given up, General Sumner was ordered East, and Brigadier-General 
George Wright, United States Volunteers, Colonel of the Ninth Infantry, 
U. S. A., succeeded to the command of the Department of the Pacific. 
The California troops were stationed at various places throughout the 
State. The regulars, with the exception of the Ninth Infantry and four 
companies of the Third Artillery, were ordered East. 

The folloAving is the correspondence showing the strength and dispo- 
sition of the troops up to the time of the organization of the " California 
Column;" the California Column, so called, being the force organized 
for the purpose of recapturing New Mexico, which at that time comprised 
the territory now within the limits of Arizona. (See proclamation of 
General Carleton organizing the Territory of Arizona, on page 55 of this 
book) : 

Headquarters Army, September 16, 1861. 

Brig. -Gen. E. V. Sumner, U. S. A^, Commanding Department Pacific, San Francisco : 

Sir: A dispatch was sent you by the pony express the tenth instant and a duplicate 
the fourteenth, directing you to suspend the expedition, via Mazatlan^ to western Texas, 
and to prepare to send all the regular troops, excei)t four companies of artillery, by 
steamer to New York. 

The General-in-Chief directs that you accordingly leave one company (Third Artillery) 
at Fort Vancouver and three companies in the harbor of San Francisco. The remainder 
of the regulars you will send forward by steamer to New York as fast as they can be col- 
lected for embarkation. 

The cavalry and artillery horses will be disposed of in such manner as may be deemed 
best for the public interest. The arms and equipments of the troops will be brought with 
them ; also, ten thousand of the muskets remaining in store. The field batteries and 
their equipments will be left behind. You will send orders to Colonel Wright to repair 
to San Francisco to relieve you in command of the department, and after his arrival will 
proceed to the headquarters of the Army and report in person. 

Brig.-Gen. J. W. Denver, U. S. Volunteer Service, will be ordered to California to relieve 
Colonel Wright, who will then proceed to report in person at Army headquarters. 

The following dispatch was sent you this day by pony express and also oy telegraph : 

"Besides the volunteer force called for from California to guard the overland mail route, 
the five regiments (one of cavalry and four of infantry) originally ordered will be organ- 
ized and held ready for service on the Pacific Coast and elsewhere, according to future 
orders to be given. 

" I send a copy of this to the Governor of California." 
1 am, sir, etc., 

E. D. TOWNSEND, 
Assistant Adjutant-General. 

General Orders,) Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 

No. 23. f San Francisco, October 2, 1861. 

In compliance with instructions received from the General-in-Chief, the following 
movements of regular troops in this department are ordered, preparatory to their sail- 
ing for New York : 

1. The garrison of each of the several posts in the District of Oregon will, upon being 
relieved by volunteer troops, proceed to Fort Vancouver, from whence they will be sent 
to this city. The horses and horse equipments belonging to the company of cavalry at 
The Dalles will be turned over to the companj^ of Oregon volunteers ; the horses and 
equipments pertaining to other companies of cavalry in the district will be brought to 
this city. 

2. Tlie troops serving in the District of Southern California will, with the exception of 
those stationed at Fort Yuma and New San Diego, be in readiness to concentrate at San 



THE CALIFORNIA COLUMN. 33 

Pedro. When relieved by volunteers the companies at Fort Yuma will unite with that 
at New San Diego. 

3. The garrisons of Forts Churchill, Humboldt, Bragg, Crook, Gaston, Umpqua, and 
Ter-Waw will be relieved by volunteer troops. When relieved, the companies of the 
Sixth Regiment of Infantry at these posts will repair to Benicia Barracks, and those of 
the Fourth Infantry and First Cavalry to this city. The horses, with their equipments, 
pertaining to companies of the First Cavalry at Forts Churchill and Crook will be brought 
to this city. 

4. The headquarters and Companies C, H, I, and L of the Third Regiment of Artillery 
will be in readiness to sail at a moment's notice. The horses, harness, etc., pertaining to 
Company C will be turned over to the Quartermaster's Department, and tlie field battery 
and ordnance stores to the Ordnance Department. 

5. Lieutenant-Colonel Merchant will at once transfer from Companies D, H, I, and L 
of his regiment a sufficient number of privates to make an aggregate of ninety for each 
of those companies selected to remain on this coast. 

6. Paragraph 1 of Special Orders No. 165 is revoked. Company L, Third Artillery, 
will immediately proceed to the Presidio of San Francisco. 

7. The troops directed above to repair to this city will, upon their arrival, receive fur- 
ther instructions. 

By order of Brigadier-General Sumner. 

R. C. DRUM, 
Assistant Adjutant-General. 

Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, October 28, 1861. 
Colonel : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 
thirtieth ultimo, also an extract from Special Order No. 160, of the same date, from the 
headquarters of the Army. On the seventeenth instant, five companies of the Second 
Infantry, California Volunteers, left this place on the steamer for Oregon, for the purpose 
of relieving the regular troops at the most remote stations in that district. To-morrow 
five companies of the Fourth Infantry, California Volunteers, will embark for Oregon, 
and relieve the troops at Fort Dalles, and the garrisons in the district west of the Cascade 
Mountains. After the withdrawal of the regular troops from the District of Oregon there 
will remain, under the present arrangement, ten companies of volunteer infantry and one 
company of regulars (Tnird Artillerv). The company of the Third Artillery now at Fort 
Vancouver will occupy San Juan Island, and the volunteer infantry will occupy all the 
posts in the district now garrisoned by the regulars, with the exception of Fort Cassadv. 
No more troops will be sent to Oregon for the present, and I have suspended the enroll- 
ment of the volunteer company of cavalry at Fort Dalles, as the recent call made by the 
War Department for a regiment of cavalry to be raised in Oregon will, it is presumed, be 
ample for any emergencies likely to arise m that country. The District of Southern Cali- 
fornia is under the command of Colonel Carleton. He has ten companies of infantry 
and five of cavalry, and, should it be necessary, an additional force can be thrown into 
that country with promptness. On the steamer which will leave here on the first prox- 
imo there will embark at San Pedro the headquarters staff, band, and six companies of 
the Fourth Infantry, one company of the Ninth Infantry, and two companies of the First 
Cavalry, the whole under command of Bvt. Lt.-Col. R. C. Buchanan, Fourth Infantry. 
The regular troops from Fort Yuma will reach San Diego in season to embark on the 
steamer leaving here on the twenty-first of November. I shall send forward the regular 
troops to New York with the utmost dispatch, as fast as they reach the coast, without 
regard to regiments. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

G. WRIGHT, 
Colonel, U. S. Army, Commanding, 

Co?."E. D. Townsend, Assistant Adjutant-General, Headquarters of the Army, Washingt07i, 
D. C. 



Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, November 5, 1861. 
General: I have this moment received Major-General McClellan's dispatch of the 
second instant, calling for a report of the condition of my troops. I have replied briefly 
by telegraph as follows : " Troops in good condition. Cavalry regiments full. Infantry 
regiments filling up. Fifteen companies sent north." The organization of the volunteer 
force called for from this State by the War l)ei)artment will be completed at an early date. 
The cavalry service is the favorite arm in this country, and both regiments, the first of 
five and the second of twelve companies, are full. It is confidently expected that the five 
infantry regiments will be nearly filled by the first of December. The First Infantry is 
fully organized and is in the southern district of the State. Five companies of the Sec- 
ond and five of the Fourth Infantry have already been sent to Oregon to relieve the regu- 
lar troops in that State and the Territory of Washington. Four companies of the Third 
Infantrv and one of the Second Cavalry have been sent to relieve the garrisons of Forts 
Bragg, Seward, Gaston, and Ter-Waw ; one company of the Second Cavalry to Fort Crook ; 



34 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS, 

two companies of same regiment to Fort Clinrchill, and one to Benicia Barracks. In the 
Southern District of California Colonel Carleton is in command. He has his own regi- 
ment, First California Volunteer Infantry, and the First Cavalry, a l)attalion of five com- 
panies. Commands have already been sent to relieve the regular troops at Fort Yuma 
and at San Diego. Colonel Carleton's intimate knowledge of tne southern section of this 
State makes it of the highest importance that he should remain there in command. 

As the War Department specially designated Colonel Carleton to command the First 
Infantry, California Volunteers, originally designed for jirntection to the overland mail 
service, I have taken it for granted that it was not intended to withdraw him from the 
volunteer service, under the instructions from Adjutant-General's office of the third of 
October, 1861. Lieut. -Col. Cady, of the Seventh Infantry, regular Army, is now in com- 
mand of the District of Oregon, having been sent there by General iSumner to relieve 
Colonel Brott, of the First Cavalry. The regular troops 1 shall send East as fast as they 
reach the coast. Most of them will have sailed by the first of December; those from 
Colville and Walla Walla will not get off quite so soon. Should it be the wish of the 
department to send volunteers from this country to the East, I doubt not that the regi- 
ments would be filled very promptly. The personnel is not surpassed by any troops we 
have; all that is required is instruction and discipline. 

Very respectfully, your most obedient servant, 

G. WRIGHT, 
Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 

Brigadier-General Seth Williams, Adjutant-General, at Headquarters of the Army, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

[Indorsement.] 

Inform General W. that Colonel Carleton and Colonel Cady will be retained in his 
department ; that his arrangements are approved. Recommend to the Secretary that six 
picked squadrons of Californians be formed lor service with the Army of Potomac and 
four for service in Texas ; that two regiments of California and Oregon infantry be raised 
for service here and two for western Texas. 

GEORGE B. McCLELLAN. 



Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, Cal., November 15, 1861. 

General: At 11 o'clock this morning I received your telegraphic dispatch of the 
thirteenth instant. On the seventeenth instant I shall forward the return called for, as 
complete as circumstances will admit of. In the meantime, in order to keep the depart- 
ment fully informed of the progress we are making in organizing the volunteers in this 
State, I will give you a synopsis of the diff"erent regiments. The First Cavalry, a battal- 
ion of five companies, has been filled and is posted in the southern district of the State. 
The Second Cavalry, consisting of twelve companies, has been filled. Two of the com- 
panies are at Fort Churchill, one at Fort Crook, one at Fort Seward, one at Benicia, and 
the remaining seven are in camp four miles from this city. Both of the cavalry regi- 
ments have tlieir horses, but thus far they have only been drilled on foot. They are 
undergoing a thorough course of discipline and instruction. The First Infantry has 
been organized and is nearly full. The regiment is stationed at Fort Yuma and other 
points in the southern district. The Second Infantry has its headquarters at the Pre- 
sidio, near this city. Five companies of the regiment have been organized and sent 
under a field oflicer to Oregon, to relieve some of the regular troops in that district. The 
remaining five companies will, I think, be filled in the course of a month. The Third 
Infantry has its headquarters near Stockton, in this State. Four companies have been 
detached to relieve the regulars at Forts Ter-Waw, Gaston, Bragg, and Seward. The 
remaining six companies will soon be filled. The Fourth Infantry has its headquarters 
near Auburn, in this State. Five companies of this regiment, under the Lieutenant- 
Colonel, have already been sent to the District of Oregon, and the remaining five will 
soon be filled. The Fifth Infantry is near the city of Sacramento. No detachments have 
been made from this regiment. 

The recruiting is progressing favorably. I think we can rely upon it that all the regi- 
ments will be filled by the close of the year. A rigid course of discipline and instruction 
has been instituted in all the regiments; the otficers are generally enthusiastic and zeal- 
ous in the discharge of their duties, and are to be commended for their assiduity in 
acquiring a knowledge of their duties. On the steamer which left here on the eleventh I 
sent no troops East ; they could not reach here in season. On the steamer leaving on the 
twenty-first I shall embark three companies of the Sixth Infantry, now at Benicia, and 
three of the Sixth and two of the Fourth Infantry, at San Diego, the whole commanded 
by Colonel Seawell, Sixth Infantry. I expect to send the last of the regular troops in 
the department to New York on the steamer of the eleventh proximo. 1 have notning 
special to report. Everything is quiet to all appearance, but we must not relax in our 
vigilance nor be lulled into a false security. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

G. WRIGHT, 
Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding Department. 

Brig.-Gen. L. Thomas, Adjxitant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C. 



THE CALIFORNIA COLUMN. 35 

[Indorsement.] 

Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, November 16, 1861. 

The within commnnication, addressed to Brigadier-General Thomas, after receiving 
his telegraphic dispatch of the thirteenth instant, is respectfully submitted to Major- 
General McClellan. 

G. WRIGHT, 
Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 

Assistant Adjutant-General, Headquarters of the Army, Washington, D. C. 



[Telegram.] 

Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant-General's Office, 
Washington, November 19, 1861. 

Brig. -Gen. George Wright, U. S. Volunteers, San Francisco, Cal.: 

You are assigned to the command of the Department of the Pacific, and will retain 
the Ninth Regiment of Infantry in your command. 
By command of Major-General McClellan. 

LORENZO THOMAS, 

Adjutant-General. 

Headquarters Department op the Pacific, 
San Francisco, November 22, 1861. 

Assistant Adjutant-General, Headquarters of the Army , Washington: 
Dispatch received from headquarters of Maj.-Gen. McClellan, dated 19 November. 

G. WRIGHT. 
Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 
Copy to go by steamer. 



Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, November 20, 1861. 

Assistant Adjutant-General, Headquarters of the Army, Washington, D. C. : 

Sir: On the sixteenth instant I had the honor to acknowledge (by telegraph) the receipt 
of Major-General McClellan's dispatch of the thirteenth. I have recalled Colonel Carle- 
ton from his command in the southern district, and as soon as he arrives I shall organize 
his command of at least one regiment, for the protection of the overland mail route. I 
have conferred with Mr. Louis SicLane, the agent, as to the most suitable point to locate 
the troops, in order to afford the required protection. He suggests Simpson's Park, Ruby 
Valley, and Camp Floyd, as the best positions to occupy. The first is three hundred and 
twenty-six miles from Sacramento, Ruby Valley ninety-eight miles from Sinijison's, and 
Camp' Floyd is two hundred and seventeen miles in advance of Ruby Valley. The 
weatlier for many days past has been tempestuous in the extreme, and the snow on the 
mountains is reported as very deep, and it maybe next to an impossibility for the troops 
to cross over with the necessary supplies. Were it not for the starving condition of the 
Indians, no fears need be entertained of their committing any dei)redations. Twenty 
thousand dollars' worth of provisions, annually distributed to the friendly tribes along 
this section of the route, would save the Government vast sums of money. The contract 
made last summer for the transportation of our supplies from this place to Ruby Valley 
was at the rate of .$400 per ton; and at this season it will cost much more. 

Everj'thing is quiet on this coast; nothing of importance has transpired since my com- 
munication to the Adjutant-General of the Army, dated on the sixteenth instant, a copy 
of which was forwarded to the headquarters of the Army. I have removed the Third 
Infantry, California Volunteers, from Stockton to Benicia Barracks. Four companies of 
this regiment are already at their stations ; the remaining six have been organizea and are 
progressing favorably in recruiting. Clothing for all the troops in the department is 
being made here. Very soon the supply will be ample and of a superior quality, at a 
reasonable rate. On the ninth 1 inspect'ed the troops at Fort Point, one company Third 
Artillery, commanded by Brevet Major Austin, and on the tliirteenth I inspected the 
troops at Alcatraz Island, two companies Third Artillery, commanded by Major Burton. 
It affords me pleasure to report that I found the troops in high order. The armament of 
the fort, although incomplete, was found in handsome condition, and ready for any 
emergency. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

G. WRIGHT, 
Brigadier-General, U. S. Armj', Commanding. 



36 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

Headquartees Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, Cal., November 21, 1861. 

General: I have this day forwarded to you by steamer a return of troops of this de- 
partment. It is made up of the latest reports we have received. My troops are occupy- 
ing a vast extent of country, extending- from Yuma in the south to Colville in the north, 
a distance of about two thousand miles, over the route usually marched. The severe 
snowstorm in the mountains has completely blocked up the mail route east, and it will 
probably be several days before they can resume their regular trips. In the meantime I 
shall avail myself of the telegraph and the tri-monthly steamers to communicate with 
headquarters. Colonel Seawell sailed on the steamer to-day with three companies Sixth 
Infantry. At San Diego he will receive five additional companies. Major Lovell, Tenth 
Infantry, Major Flint, Sixteenth Infantry, and Brevet Major Andrews, Third Artillery, I 
have placed on duty with Colonel Seawell's command. The last steamer from Oregon 
brought down two companies of the Ninth Infantry, and on the steamer now due I expect 
five more companies of the same regiment. They will all go East on the steamer of the 
first of December. The companies from Forts Dalles, Walla Walla, and Colville may be 
looked for by the tenth of December. Lieutenant Mullon has one hundred good men of 
the Ninth Infantry as escort to the Walla Walla and Fort Berton wagon road expedition. 
An order was sent early in October for those men to join their companies, since which we 
have heard nothing from them. The last General Order I have received from your office 
was No. 89, of eleventh of October, a single copy onlj^. I have not yet received the revised 
Army Regulations. I would suggest that in sending out books and large packages the 
ocean route be used. Quiet pervades the Pacific Slope. 
Very respectfully, your obedient sevant, 

G. WRIGHT, 
Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 

Brig.-Gen. L. Thomas, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C. 



Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, November 26, 1861. 

Assistant Adjutant-General, Headquarters of the Army, Washington, D. C. : 

Sir: On the twenty-second instant I had the honor to acknowledge the receipt of the 
dispatch of the nineteenth, from the headquarters of the Army, assigning me to the com- 
mand of this department, and further instructing me to retain the Ninth Infantry under 
my command. 

Two companies Ninth Infantry (G and K), with the non-commissioned staff and band, 
arrived here on the fourteenth, and five more companies of the same regiment reached 
here on the twenty-second. This command I have concentrated at the Presidio, San 
Francisco, to undergo a thorough course of instruction. The remaining two companies 
of the Ninth Infantry are en route from Fort Colville, and I have ordered them to halt at 
Fort Vancouver. I propose to send one of those companies to "Camp Pickett," on the 
island of San Juan, and let the other remain at Fort Vancouver, the headquarters of the 
District of Oregon and the principal depot for that command. 

Company E, Ninth Infantrv, left this coast on the steamer of the firet instant for New 
York, witli the command under Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Buchanan, Fourth Infantry. 
The company was without any officer present belonging to it. The Captain, Wood, is on 
recruiting service East. 

Nothing was said in the telegraphic dispatch about retaining any additional medical 
officers, but I have assumed that I should anticipate the wishes of the General-in-Chief 
by keeping three assistant surgeons, Hager. Craig, and Taylor. Their services are neces- 
sary in consequence of the retention of the Ninth Infantry. They were selected after 
consultation with the Medical Director. 

After the company of the Ninth Infantry reaches San Juan Island the company of the 
Third Artillery now there will be brought to this place and posted in one of the fortifica- 
tions in the harbor. 

I have ordered the horses and horse equipments of the four companies of the First Cav- 
alry now in Oregon to be concentrated at Fort Vancouver. They have about two hun- 
dred horses, but a majority of them are old and unfit for hard service. 1 would recommend 
that they be turned over to the volunteer cavalry being raised in Oregon, should the 
department design furnishing those troops with horses and equipments. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

G. WRIGHT, 
Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 

Adjutant-General's Office, January 3, 1862. 

Respectfully referred for perusal, and remark invited, to the Quartermaster-General, 
Commissary-General, Surgeon-General. 
By order: 

• E. D. TOWNSEND, 

Please return. Assistant Adjutant-General. 



THE CALIFORNIA COLUMN. 87 

Eespectfully returned to the Adjutant-General, U. S. Army. 
B j^ order : 

E. J. SIBLEY, 
Lieutenant-Colonel, U. S. Army, Deputy Quartermaster-General. 

Quartermaster-General's Office, August 30, 1862. 



Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, November 29, 1861. 

To the Assistant Adjutant-General, Headquarters of the Army, Washington, D. C: 

Sir: Since my communication of the twenty-sixth instant, nothing of interest has trans- 
pired within this department. At this moment (1 p. m.) it is not probable that the steamer 
which leaves here to-morrow morning will take more than the headquarters and two 
companies of the First Cavalry. It is possible, however, that the two companies of tlie 
Fourth and one of the Sixth Infantry may reach here in time. 
Very respectfullv, your "obedient servant, 

G. WRIGHT, 
Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 



38 



RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 



CD i 



Total Commissioned 



Subalterns 

Captains.. 

Regimental Staff O ffi 
cers 

Regimental Field Of 
fleers 

Military Storekeep- 
ers... 

Ordnance Depart- 
ment 



Pay Department 

Medical Department. 

Quartermaster's De- 
partment 

Adjutant - General's 
Department 

Aid-de-Camp ._ 

General Officers 



1^ O l^ iC I^ CO to -* lO C-l I 
CO -3< iH 04 C-1 'M 



1-1 O 



lNCOl>00i-l0DlOC0C>l 



r^C^-S<005 0J 



•I tH C-1 M C^ C^ 



CO CO CO -^ CO CO iH 






« 






03 . . . <u -hHM Ti-5 J 

^- ^ ^ ^- ^ ^- •'-^^ ?, o.'K 
o o o o o oiS t>.S i3S-tl 



;S'3; 



03 -C 
-03 



1" . 

p-2 






5 b^ ©fc 

S be o3 &« 

"trt ^ ':rl o "t^ -^ 

■s M c g p<.3 

O •'H OJ o3 0) +i 



Number of Companies. 



CO O O Ol Ol IM iH r 



THE CALIFORNIA COLUMN. 



39 



Aggregate 



Total Enlisted. 



Privates . 



Artificers, Farriers, 
and Blacksmiths.. 



OSCOi-iOOOOClt^i— (OOtOlCTj* 
■- O O^ CO t^ :C t^ Ov iC "^ rH I— « 



C^ T-H iC^ O ^ i-H 



C-- O l.O 5D to to iH 



X CC T)< lO lO lO rH 



Musicians . 



Corporals. 



Sergeants. 



Hospital Stewards 



Orderly Sergeants . 



Non - Commissioned 
StaflFof Regiments. 



Number of Companies. 



I— ItH r-t 00^ 



> r-l C-) O CO lO Tf C-> >H 
1 i-Hi-H i-l C>) T-l 



•NOOCOCCtOOO-*-^ 
Tj" CO ^ T)< t3< CO 



'^ t^ CO CO COCO 






~ it m C (D to 

s g 3 a p*" 






0,5 o 
o >S. g^ a"KCi 
•S aS S-^ o.l3,a o o iH (H 



a ■ p. 



a 

O 



a 
2 a >;.s ^ 



■5 a 

03 . 



— a ■^ 

«P3 






• .• a-s-f^ 



^^ a-s-K 

50000^ ;>.2S'.t! 



OS f B-2 
£fig5^ 



,s:::^ acn ; 



.gemote 

3 tUDoS P.2 



r- ^" 






> a'' 



t: 1^ a a f^^ 



r-IOlOOC-. OCIrHi-Hr-l' 



go 
d5 



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t3 


H 








sz 















oS 


WO 


.^ 








c 






«R 






a 


«2 
h3 


Cb 




a 


6,5 






2 


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40 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, December 10, 1861. 

General: The troops in this department are distributed over such a wide extent of 
country, and the communication with some of the remote stations being very uncertain 
as to time, we have found it impossible to prepare the tri-monthly reports required at 
your office with promptness. Under these embarrassments, I avail myself of every 
opportunity to keep you well informed by letter of the position and condition, as well as 
the proximate strength, of the troops on' this coast. 

In Oregon District I have two companies Ninth Infantry, one company Third Artillery, 
and ten companies of volunteer infantry. 

In the Central District, embracing San Francisco and the northern portion of Cali- 
fornia, I have three companies Third Artillery, one ordnance company, seven com- 
panies Ninth Infantry, one regiment of volunteer cavalry, and thirty companies of 
volunteer infantry. 

In the District of Southern California I have five companies of volunteer cavalry and 
a regiment of volunteer infantry. 

The strength of the four companies Third Artillery is about 350 

The strength of the seven companies Ninth Infantry is about 550 

The Ordnance Company at Benicia is about 50 

The First Cavalry (five companies) Volunteers is about 450 

The Second Cavalry (twelve companies) Volunteers is about 1,000 

The five regiments "infantry Volunteers is about 3,500 

Total 5,900 

The condition of the troops is good; they are all under a rigid course of discipline and 
instruction. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

G. WRIGHT, 
Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 

Brig.-Gen. L. Thomas, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C. 



Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, Cal., December 10, 1861. 

Brig.-Gen. L. Thomas, Adjutant-General U.S. Army, Washhigtoii, D. C: 

General: For several weeks past small parties have been organizing in the southern 
district of this State, with the avowed purpose of proceeding to Texas to aid the Rebels. 
To enable me to frustrate their designs I have seized all the boats and ferries on the Col- 
orado River, and have them strongly guarded. I have reinforced Fort Yuma with two 
more companies— one of infantry and one of cavalry ; also with two twelve-pounder brass 
cannon. 

Major Rigg, First California Volunteer Infantry, commanding United States troops 
near Warner's Ranch, on the border of the desert' between that place and Fort Yuma, 
has arrested a man by the name of Showalter, a notorious Secessionist, and his party of 
seventeen men. I have ordered the whole party to be taken to Fort Yuma and held 
securely guarded until further orders. 

I have given positive orders that no person shall be permitted to pass beyond Yuma or 
cross the Colorado River without my special permit; also, that all persons approaching 
the frontier of the State shall be arrested and held in confinement unless satisfactory evi- 
dence is produced of their fidelity to the Union. The time has arrived when individual 
rights must give way, and I shall" not hesitate to adopt the most stringent measures to 
crush any attempt a"t rebellion within this department. I will not permit oiu- Govern- 
ment and institutions to be assailed by word or deed without promptly suppressing it by 
the strong arm of power, feeling assured that I shall be sustained by my Government and 
receive the cordial support of every patriotic citizen on this coast. 

Hoping that what I have done or propose to do may be approved by the General-in- 
Chief and Secretary of War, I have the honor to be your obedient servant, 

G. WRIGHT, 
Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 

[Indorsement.] 

Please inform General Wright that his course is fully approved. 

GEO. B. McCLELLAN, 

Major-General. 
Adjutant-General. 



THE CALIFORNIA COLUMN, 41 

Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, December 16, 1861. 
General : As the forts at Fort Point and on Alcatraz Island are now occupied by troops, 
I respectfully request that they may be named by the department. 
Very respectfully* your obedient servant, 

G. WRIGHT, 
Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 

Brig. -Gen. L. Thomas, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C. 

[Indorsement.] 

Adjutant-General's Office, February — , 1862. 
Respectfully submitted to the Secretary of War, with the request that he will designate 
names for the two permanent fortilications at Fort I'oint and Alcatraz Island, harbor of 
San Francisco. 

L. THOMAS, 
Adjutant-General. 

Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, December 20, 1861 — 2 p. m. 

General: My reports and returns already made, and which you will receive with this, 
will inform j^oil of the strength of my command. The troops are in good condition, and 
improving in discipline and instruction. The country is generally quiet. In the south- 
western portion 01 the State the sympathizers with rebellion are numerous, and small 
parties are constantly organized with a view to pass the frontier; but thus far we have 
defeated their attempts. The most stringent measures have been adopted and enforced 
to prevent the Rebels from receiving any assistance from this country. 

I am now actively engaged m preparing the means of transportation and all the sup- 
plies necessary for the expedition which I am authorized to make under Colonel Carleton. 
Verv respectfully, your obedient servant, 

G. WRIGHT, 
Brigadier-General, IT. S. Army, Commanding. 

Brig. -Gen. L. Thomas, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washingtoji, D. C. 



Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, Cal., December 22, 1861. 

To his Excellency J. W. Nye, Governor of Nevada Territory, Carson City: 

Sir: I have received instructions from the headquarters of the Army to send a regi- 
ment of troops, or more, if I deem it necessary, to protect the overland mail route. The 
command will be under Colonel Carleton, and will move as soon as the necessary arrange- 
ments can be made. 

I am informed that it is next to an impossibility for troops with their supplies to cross 
the mountains at this time, and my object in addressing your Excellency is to obtain 
reliable data as to the practicability of the route, and particularly as to the condition of 
the Indians, and the probability of their committing depredations on the stock of the 
mail company. As soon as practicable I design to establish troops at Simpson's Park, 
Ruby Valley, and Camp Floyd, and in the meantime, is it within your power to issue 
such' provisions to the starving Indians along the route as maybe necessary for their 
existence ? 

I have an extra supply of provisions at Fort Churchill, and although I am not author- 
ized to issue to Indians," except in small quantities, yet I should not hesitate to sell it to 
the Indian Department, under existing circumstances, even if the department should 
not be in funds, not doubting that such a course would be approved. I shall esteem it a 
favor to receive your views on the subject, with any suggestions you may deem X)ertinent. 

I have been assigned to the command of the department, andremain on this coast. A 
service of more than nine years on the Pacific has familiarized me with the whole coun- 
trj', and also with the character and temper of the inhabitants. The Union-loving people 
of the coast are vastly in the ascendant, their tiat has gone forth, and no secession doc- 
trine can flourish here; nevertheless, it behooves vis to be watchful at all times. 

I shall not assume a threatening attitude for the purpose of warning our enemies to 
refrain from unlawful acts, but pursuing the even tenor of my way, ever observant of 
impending events, and ready at all times to enforce a due respect and observance of the 
Constitution and laws of the country ; and if it becomes my duty to act I shall do so fear- 
lessly, and without regard to personal consequences, feeling assured that I shall receive 
the cordial support of every true and loyal citizen of the Pacific Coast. 

With great respect, I have the honor to be your Excellency's obedient servant, 

G. WRIGHT, 
Brigadier-General, IT. S. Army, Commanding Department. 



42 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

Headquarters First California Volunteer Infantry, 
Camp Latham, near Los Angeles, Cal., December 23, 1861. 

All persons who have been arrested or who may be arrested in this State as Secession- 
ists or traitors to the country will be kept in continement at Fort Yuma until final action 
is had on each case. The garrison of that fort will be at once increased to nine com- 
panies—one of artillery, six of infantry, and two of cavalry. Its defenses will be 
strengthened and some heavy guns mounted, and it will be well supplied with ammu- 
nition, provisions, and forage'. It is reported that the Navajo Indians obstruct the route 
from Albuquerque to Los Angeles, now important as the only one on which the daily 
mail from the States can be carried, that of the north being blocked up with snow; that 
of the south being in possession of the Kebels at its eastern end and on the Rio Grande. 
These Indians are therefore to be brought to terms. 

An expedition, consisting of seven companies, will move up the Colorado on Colonel 
Hoffman' s trail. Three of these companies (infantry) will reoccupy Fort Navajo and 
reestablish the ferry. This force, as heretofore, will draw its supplies from Los Angeles. 
The other four— three of cavalry and one of infantry— will proceed on to Las Vegas, near 
the Potosi Mines, on the Salt Lake road, and establish a post at the old Mormon fort. 
This is preliminary to the movement, already ordered, of troops next summer to Fort 
Crittenden, near Salt Lake. The new post at Las Vegas will be known as Fort Baker. 

JAMES H. CARLETON, 
Colonel, First California Volunteers, Commanding. 



Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, Cal., December 31, 1861. 

Brig. -Gen. L. Thomas, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C: 

General: Since my communications of the nineteenth and twentieth instants nothing 
of importance has occurred in the department. I am throwing forward supplies to Fort 
Yuma as rapidly as possible. To-morrow a steamer will leave here for the mouth of the 
Colorado River, laden with subsistence and other stores required for the movement of 
Colonel Carleton's expedition. It is two thousand miles to the mouth of the Colorado, 
at which point the stores must be reshipped on small river steamers for Fort Yuma. I 
have also embarked on the steamer a guard of one company of the Fifth California Vol- 
unteer Infantry, eighty-eight strong, commanded by a relialile officer, who has received 
special instructions. Additional supi^lies and means of transportation are also being 
forwarded to San Pedro, the j)ort of Los Angeles, Southern California, four hundred and 
fifty miles from this place, from thence to be sent by land to Fort Yuma, three hundred 
miles. I am gradually moving a portion of the Second Cavalry and the whole of the 
Fifth California Volunteer Infantry to Southern California, to replace the troops desig- 
nated for Carleton's expedition. The latter will not advance to Fort Yuma until advices 
are received of the arrival at that place of the stores shipped by sea. The expedition of 
Colonel Carleton is one of considerable magnitude, and, operating on a long line remote 
from its source of supplies, cannot with propriety advance from Yuma until fully pre- 
pared for the campaign. Fort Yuma is being fortified and will be securely held_ by a 
strong reserve. Under the command of Colonel Carleton, an officer of skill, exjierience, 
and sound judgment, we have the strongest assurance that the expedition will be suc- 
cessful. 

The weather for many days past has been tempestuous in the extreme. The floods east 
and north of this city have destroyed a vast amount of property and almost entirely sus- 
pended our mail communications. The telegraph has not been in operation for several 
days. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

G. WRIGHT, 
Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 

To explain the reason for the formation of the California Column, a 
brief account of the Confederate occupation of New Mexico and Arizona 
will be given. 

During the month of July, 1861, Lieut. -Col. John R. Baylor, com- 
manding Second "Texas Mounted Rifles, arrived at Fort Bliss, near El 
Paso, or Franklin, as it was then called, with about three hundred men. 
On the twenty-third of July he occupied the town of La Mesilla, New 
Mexico, located on the west bank of the Rio Grande, about twenty-five 
miles north of the Texas line. About six miles below and on the east 
bank was situated Fort Fillmore, occupied by seven companies of the 
Seventh U. S. Infantry, one company of the Mounted Rifles, or Third 



THE CALIFORNIA COLUMN. 43 

Cavalry, an aggregate of four hundred and ten officers and men, the 
whole under the command of Major Isaac Lynde, of the Seventh In- 
fantry. The Confederate forces were permitted to pass Fort Fillmore 
and occupy Mesilla without resistance. On the afternoon of July twen- 
ty-fifth Major Lynde marched against the town with nearly his whole 
force. He approached as near as he could with safety, and after firing 
a few shots with his artillery, and a short skirmish with his other troops, 
retreated to the fort, with a loss of three killed and seven wounded. 
Two days later he ordered the stores destroyed, and a retreat to Fort 
Stanton. They left the post at two o'clock in the morning, and after 
one day's march, and on arrival at a pass through the Organ Mount- 
ains, about twenty miles from the fort, surrendered his entire command 
to an inferior force under Baylor, who had followed in his rear, without 
a shot having been fired on either side. 

The following order was issued in Lynde's case: 

General Orders, ) Headquarters of the Army, 

No. 102. i Washington, D. C, November 25, 1861. 

Major Isaac Lynde, Seventh Infantry, for abandoning his post — Fort Filhnore, New 
Mexico — on the twenty-seventh of July, 1861, and subsequently surrendering his com- 
mand to an inferior force of insurgents, is, by direction of the President of the United 
States, dropped from the rolls of the Army from this date. 
By command of Major-General McClellan. 

L. THOMAS, 
Adjutant-General. 

The above order was revoked in November, 1866, and Major Lynde 
was placed on the retired list of the Army. 

In the meantime, all the posts in the territory that now constitutes 
Arizona were abandoned, and the troops assembled at Fort Craig, in New 
Mexico. On the first of August Colonel Baylor issued a proclamation 
organizing the Territory of Arizona, making the boundary line between 
that Territory and New Mexico the thirty-fourth parallel of north lati- 
tude, with the town of Mesilla the seat of government, and himself 
Governor. 

During July, 1861, the Confederate Government at Richmond author- 
ized Gen. H. H. Sibley, formerly of the U. S. Army, to organize an 
expedition in Texas for the conquest of New Mexico. His brigade con- 
sisted of Colonel Baylor's regiment of Texas Mounted Rifles (then in 
New Mexico, as described above), Colonel James Reily's Fourth Regi- 
ment, Colonel Thomas Green's Fifth Regiment, and Colonel William 
Steel's Seventh Regiment, all of Texas mounted troops. . He arrived in 
New Mexico about the middle of December, and assumed command of 
all the Confederate troops in the two Territories. He issued an absurd 
proclamation to the people of New Mexico, and prepared to move up 
the Rio Grande and capture the rest of the Territory. 

In the meantime, General Canby, who commanded the Union forces, 
strengthened Fort Craig with earthworks, caused Fort Union to be 
moved from under a mesa to a better location about a mile away, an 
earthwork constructed, and the quarters of the officers and men made 
bomb-proof; he also enlisted several regiments of volunteers and reor- 
ganized the militia. 

On the sixteenth of February Sibley arrived in front of Fort Craig 
where Canby was commanding in person. He made a demonstration 
to within a mile of the post, then fell back seven miles and crossed 
to the east bank of the river; then passed up the river between two 



44 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

high ridges of lava and around the eastern end of the Mesa de la Con- 
tadero (a table mountain about five hundred feet high, Contadero mean- 
ing a narrow pass, so called because it crowds the river into a narrow 
gorge), and into Valverde (Green Valley). Valverde is a park-like 
plain just north of the mesa, studded with cottonwood trees, about two 
miles long, and extending back from the river half a mile to some low 
sand ridges. General Canby moved up the river on the western side, 
and at ten a. m. of the twenty-first the action commenced. Canby 
crossed his entire command excepting a small force of New Mexican 
militia. The action lasted from ten o'clock in the forenoon until dark, 
when the Union forces were withdrawn to the west side of the river and 
retreated to the fort, having sustained a loss of three officers and sixty- 
five men killed, three officers and one hundred and fifty-seven men 
wounded, one officer and thirty-four men prisoners. The enemy's loss 
was forty killed and two hundred wounded. 

The Confederates then moved up the river, capturing Albuquerque 
and Santa Fe. 

During the last week of March Colonel John P. Slough, First Regi- 
ment Colorado Volunteers, with one thousand three hundred and forty- 
two officers and men, with two small batteries of four guns each, left 
Fort Union to eff'ect a junction with Canby. On the twenty-sixth his 
advance, consisting of two hundred cavalry and one hundred and eighty 
infantry, under Major Chivington, same regiment, encountered the 
enemy in Apache Caiion, about fifteen miles east from Santa Fe, at a 
place called Johnson's Ranch. An engagement followed, in which both 
sides claimed the victory. The Union loss was five killed and fourteen 
wounded, while the Confederate loss was thirty-two killed, forty-three 
wounded, and seventy-one prisoners. Chivington fell back to Pigeon's 
Ranch, and Major Pyron, who commanded the Confederates, was rein- 
forced during the night by Colonel W. R. Scurry and his command, 
making the total Confederate force twelve or thirteen hundred men. 
On the twelfth Colonel Slough arrived with the balance of the command, 
making the Union force about equal to the Confederates; and at eleven 
o'clock A. M. the enemy's pickets were encountered. The battle com- 
menced in a deep gorge, with a narrow wagon track running along the 
bottom, the ground rising precipitously on each side, with huge bowl- 
ders and clumps of stunted cedars interspersed. The batteries on both 
sides were brought forward, the infantry thrown out upon the flanks, 
and the firing soon became general. Colonel Slough had been informed 
that the entire baggage and ammunition train of the Confederates was 
at Johnson's Ranch, and before the action began Major Chivington's 
command was sent over the mountain, unobserved by the enemy; it 
came down upon their camp, which was guarded by some two hundred 
men, and fell upon their train, consisting of eighty wagons, which, with 
their entire contents and a six-pounder gun, were completely destroyed. 
Two Confederate officers and fifteen men were taken prisoners. This 
loss was the most serious that the enemy had met with in the whole of 
their campaign, as all their ammunition, baggage, and provisions were 
destroyed, and it was accomplished without the loss of a single Union 
man. 

The fight in the canon continued until late in the afternoon, when 
the Confederates retreated towards Santa Fe, in a completely demoral- 
ized condition. Colonel Slough, having accomplished all that was 



THE CALIFORNIA COLUMN. 45 

desired, returned to Fort Union. This engagement is known in Union 
reports as the " Battle of Apache Canon," and at the South as the " Bat- 
tle of Glorietta." The Union loss was one officer and twenty-eight men 
killed, two officers and forty men wounded, and fifteen prisoners; the 
Confederate loss, thirty-six killed, sixty wounded, and seventeen pris- 
oners. 

General Sibley having lost most of his baggage and supplies, and 
hearing of the approach of the California Column, determined to evacu- 
ate the country. His retreat commenced about the middle of April. He 
left the regularly traveled routes and moved his command through 
almost inaccessible mountain passes, with no guides, trail, or road, cut- 
ting their way through dense undergrowth, dragging their artillery up 
and lowering it down the mountain sides with long ropes. The route 
was found strewed a year after with every description of abandoned mil- 
itary property. He finally crossed the line into Texas just as the First 
California Cavalry, under Colonel E. E. Eyre, reached the Rio Grande. 
Of the three thousand seven hundred men originally composing his com- 
mand, only one thousand five hundred straggled back into Texas four 
months later, starving and demoralized. 

During the occupation of New Mexico by Sibley's force, a small detach- 
ment under Captain Hunter was sent to occupy Tucson and to operate 
as far down as Fort Yuma. The following is Captain Hunter's report 
of his operations: 

Tucson, Ariz., April 5, 1862. 
Colonel John R. Baylor: 

Sir: After a march, made as rapidly as practicable, from the Rio Grande, attended by 
some violently stormy weather, but without any accident or misfortune save the loss of 
one of my men (Benjamin Mayo), who died at the San Simon, I have tlie honor of report- 
ing to you my arrival at this place on February twenty-eighth. My timely arrival with 
my command was hailed by a majority, 1 may say the entire population, of the town of 
Tucson. I found rumors here to the effect that the town was about being attacked by a 
large body of Indians; that military stores of the Federal Army to a large amount had 
been burned at Guaymas, and that troops from California were on the march up the Gila 
River for this place ; and tliese reports were so well accredited that a few of the citizens 
more ultra in their Southern feelings than the rest were about leaving rather than fall 
into the hands of their Northern foes, to sacrifice all their interests in this place, and look 
for safety among their Southern brethren on the Rio Grande. 

Immediately after the departure of Colonel Reily on March third for Sonora, accom- 
panied by an escort of twenty men under Lieutenant Tevis, I started with the rest of my 
command for the Pimos Villages, wliere, after my arrival, I negotiated friendly relations 
with the Indians; arrested A. M. Wliite, who was trading with them, pixrchas'ing wheat, 
etc., for the Northern troops, and confiscated the property found in his possession, a list 
of which I send you. Among the articles confiscated were one thousand five hundred 
sacks of wheat, accumulated by Mr. White and intended for the Northern Army. This I 
distributed among the Indians, as I had no means of transportation and deemed this a 
better policy of disposing of it than to destroy or leave it for the benefit (should it fall 
into their liands) of the enemy. 

While delaying at the Pinios Villages, awaiting the arrival of a train of fifty wagons, 
which was reported to be en route for that place for said wheat (which report,' however, 
turned out to be untrue), my pickets discovered the approach of a detachment of cavalry, 
which detachment, I am happy to say to you, we succeeded in capturing without firing 
a gun. This detachment consisted of Captain McCleave and nine of his men, First Cal- 
ifornia Cavalry. The Captain and Mr. White I sent in charge of Lieutenant Swilling to 
the Rio Grande. 

I learned also while at Pimos Villages that at every station, formerly overland, between 
that place and Fort Yuma, hay had been provided for the use of the Federal Government, 
which hay I have destroyed at six of the stations thus provided. My pickets on yester- 
day reported troops at Stanwix Ranch, which is on this sid« of F'ort Yuma eighty'miles. 

Allow me to say, in conclusion, that I have no opinion to offer in relation to all these 
rumors that are afloat, but give them to you as I receive them, knowing that your 
judgment and experience will dictate the proper course to pursue. 
I am, sir, your obedient servant, 

S. HUNTER, 
Captain Co. A. 



46 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

Further mention will be made of Hunter's command in describing 
the march of the California Column. 

Captain McCleave, who was taken Avholly by surprise, was exchanged 
after his arrival on the Rio Grande, and resumed duty in his regiment; 
the men were paroled and sent back to California, and were transferred 
from their own company to Company L, same regiment. After his cap- 
ture. Captain McCleave proposed to Captain Hunter that he should be 
released, and allowed to fight his whole company with his nine men, 
which offer Hunter declined. 

The appearance of the Confederate troops in New Mexico and Arizona, 
and the success they met with at first, made the authorities fear that 
they would establish themselves securely in those Territories, and use 
them as bases of supplies and for the purpose of organizing a force for 
the invasion of California; it was therefore decided to reinforce the troops 
in New Mexico with a force from that State, and thus prevent them 
from securing a foothold in New Mexico; hence the formation of the 
California Column. The following is General Wright's suggestion to 
the War Department for the organization of such expedition, and the 
indorsement of Major-General McClellan approving the same: 

Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, Cal., December 9, 1861. 

Bri<j.-Gen. L. Thomas, Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C: 

General: I beg leave to submit to the consideration of the General-in-Chief the prop- 
osition to recapture the forts in Arizona and New Mexico by a command to move from 
the southern district of this State, with the exception of a battery of light artillery, 
which I am now organizing. All the troops required for the expedition are in the soutli- 
ern district. I have ordered a company of the Ninth Infantry, regulars, to relieve the 
company of the Third Artillery at San Juan Island ; the latter to come to the harbor of 
San Francisco. A company of the Third Artillery will be designated for the battery. 
We have the guns, horses, and equipments all ready, being those left here by Company 
C, Third Artillery (late Ord's battery). I have now in Southern California the First Cali- 
fornia Volunteer Infantry, Colonel' Carleton ; the First California Volunteer Cavalry, a 
battalion of five companies, under Colonel Eyre. I estimate that this force, with the 
battery which I propose to send, will amount to about one thousand five hundred men. 
They are fine troops and well officered, and under the command of Colonel Carleton, an 
officer of great experience, indefatigable and active, the expedition must be successful. 
I have never seen a finer body of volunteer troops than those raised in this State. They 
are anxious for active service, and, feeling as we all do, that we are able to retake all the 
forts this side of the Rio Grande, I may be j^ardoned for urging the movement. The 
difficulties and delays experienced on the present route of the overland mail show us the 
absolute necessity for opening the southern route ; and why should we continue to act 
on the defensive, with Fort Yuma as our advanced post, when we have the power and 
will to drive every Rebel beyond the Rio Grande? 

In my communication of October thirty-first, I submitted to the General-in-Chief the 
propriety of our occupying Guaymas, the chief seaport of Sonora, and I still think it of 
great importance that we should do so, to prevent its falling into the hands of the Rebels. 
At that time I was inclined to make Guaymas my base of operations ; now 1 think Yuma 
a better point from which to move. In anticipation of a favorable reply to the proposi- 
tions I have made, I shall go on making arrangements to move promptly when author- 
ized to do so. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

G. WRIGHT, 
Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 

[Indorsement.] 

Adjutant-General's Office,, 
December 18, 1861. 

If the movement in progress has not already been authorized, please do so at once. 

GEORGE B. McCLELLAN, 

Major-General. 



THE CALIFORNIA COLUMN. 47 

The expedition was organized in accordance Avith the suggestion of 
General Wright, and consisted of the First California Cavah-y, five com- 
panies, under Colonel Edward E. Eyre; the First California Infantry, 
ten companies, under Colonel James H. Carleton; a light battery of four 
brass field pieces, under First Lieutenant John B. Shinn, Third Artil- 
lery, U. S. A. Afterwards the Fifth California Infantry, under Colonel 
George W. Bowie, was sent to reinforce the '' Column." On the twenty- 
eighth of April, 1862, soon after the expedition had started from Fort 
Yuma, Carleton was promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General of Vol- 
unteers, and Joseph R. West became Colonel of the First Infantry. 

The troops composing the " Column " were assembled at Fort Yuma 
in April, and early in that month information was received at that post 
that the Confederates, under Hunter, were on their way down the Gila, 
when a reconnoitering party, under Captain William P. Calloway, con- 
sisting of his own Comj^any I, First California Infantry, a detachment 
of Company A, First California Cavalry, under Lieutenants James Bar- 
rett of Company A and E. C. Baldwin of Company D, and a detachment 
of Company K, First Infantry, under Lieutenant Jeremiah Phelan, with 
two mountain howitzers, was sent out with orders to proceed along the 
overland route as far as Tucson. This command reached the Pimos Vil- 
lages with no other signs of the Confederates than a number of burned 
haystacks at the different stations. Upon approaching the Picacho, 
April 15, 1862, the Indian scouts brought information that a detachment 
of Confederates was in the immediate front. The detachment of cavalry 
was ordered to make a wide detour, so as to strike them on the flank, 
while the Captain, with the main party, was to attack them in front. 
The enemy was not found in the immediate front, but, after traveling 
several miles, rapid firing was heard in advance, and, arriving upon the 
spot, it was found that Lieutenant Barrett had located the Rebel pickets, 
and the first information they had of the Union forces was their charg- 
ing in among them. Lieutenant Barrett and tivo men were killed and 
three men wounded. These were the first California Volunteers killed 
or wounded during the war. The Rebel loss was two men wounded and 
three prisoners. The graves of the Union Lieutenant and his men may 
now be seen within twenty feet of the Southern Pacific Railroad, as it 
goes through Picacho Pass. The Union force remained on the ground 
that night, and the next morning, the Captain, against the protests of 
all his officers, ordered his party to fall back. Near Stanwix Station 
they met the advance of the " California Column," under Colonel West, 
when all proceeded to the Pimos Villages, where a permanent camp was 
established, an earthwork thrown up about the flouring mill of Mr. 
Ammi White, who had been carried away prisoner by Captain Hunter, a 
few days before. This earthwork was named Fort Barrett, in honor of 
the young Lieutenant who had been killed in the skirmish at the Pica- 
cho. A halt was made here to allow the different detachments of the 
" Column " to close up, as not over four companies could move together 
over the desert on account of the scarcity of water. On the fifteenth of 
May, Colonel West, with the advance detachment, moved out of Fort 
Barrett for Tucson. They moved up the Gila River to old Fort Breck- 
enridge, near the confluence of the Gila and San Pedro Rivers, where 
the American flag was again run up on the flagstaff of the fort, amid 
the cheers of the men. On the morning of the twentieth Tucson was 
occupied, the Confederate force having abandoned it on the approach of 
the "California Column," and returned to the Rio Grande. 



48 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

The following reports and correspondence give an account of the 
further operations of the "Column:" 

Headquarters District of Southern California, 
FoET Yuma, Cal., May 3, 1862. 

Col. E. R. S. Canby, Commanding Department of New Mexico: 

Colonel: Having no means of getting reliable information from you except by a spe- 
cial express, I send the bearer of this to you for that purpose. He will be able to tell you 
about this part of the country, and will'bring to me any communication you may desire 
to write. 

1 have a force of light battery (Company A, Third Artillery), of two twelve-pounder 
howitzers and two six-pounder guns, and fifteen companies of infantry and five compa- 
nies of cavalry, California Volunteers, well armed and provided for, and the men are as 
fine material as any in the service. I can move on from Tucson, or Fort Breckenridge, 
as soon as I hear from you. I am ready and anxious to cooperate with you. 

If necessary I can be followed by still another regiment, or more, of infantry, to be 
sent by steam to the mouth of the Colorado. It will afford me pleasure to enter into any 
plan you may suggest, so mv force can be of service to you and to the cause. 

Let me know your strengtli, your situation, your puipose; the strength, situation, and 
probable purposes of Sibley and his troops. 

Please send an escort with my messenger, to get him safely through the Apaches. 
I have the hoiior to be, very respectfully, 

JAMES H. CARLETON, 

Colonel, First California Volunteers, Commanding. 

[Indorsement.] 

At the time this letter was written it was the intention of General Carleton to niove 
forward to the Rio Grande five companies^ of the Fifth Infantry, California Volunteers. 
Some of these companies are now serving in western Arizona. 

BEN. C. CUTLER, 
First Lieutenant, Fn-st Infantry, Cal. Vols., A. A. A. General. 



Headquarters Column from California, 
Tucson, Ariz., June 11, 1862. 

General E. R. S. Canby, U. S. A., Commanding United States forces in New Mexico: 

General: I had the honor to write to you on the third ultimo from Fort Yuma, Cal., 
that I was on my way to Arizona, and desired to cooperate with you in driving the 
Rebels from New Mexico. My messenger was unable to reach you via the Salinas Fork 
of Gila, on account of high water; I therefore dispatch another through Mexican ter- 
ritory. 

I am ordered to recapture all the works in New Mexico which have been surrendered 
to the Rebels. This I shall proceed to do, starting from here as soon as the rains have 
filled the natural tanks, say early in July. 

What number of troops can find subsistence, say at twenty days' notice, at Mesilla and 
Fort Bliss, in Texas? I can start from here with sixty da'ys' supply for one battery of 
artillery, one regiment of infantry, and five companies of cavalry. With this force I 
desire to cooperate with you. This will enable me to hold this country besides. 

1 have placed Arizona under martial law, and shall continue it so until the civil officers 
come. I can bring more force if necessary. Let me know by the bearer your wishes, 
purposes, strength; the strength, position, and apparent purposes and condition of Sib- 
ley and his forces. 

I am. General, your obedient servant, 

JAMES H. CARLETON, 
Colonel, First California Volunteers, Commanding. 



Headquarters Column from California, 
Tucson, Ariz., June 15, 1862. 

General E. R. S. Canby, Commanding Department of New Mexico, Fort Craig, New Mexico: 

General: I have the honor to inform you that I have advanced thus far from Califor- 
nia with a force of regulars and volunteers sufficient in numbers to occupy this Territory. 
I have assumed to represent the United States authority, and for the time being have 
placed the Territory under martial law. 
Inclosed herewitli please find a proclamation to this effect. I send this to you by 



THE CALIFORNIA COLUMN. 49 

express, that you may not go to the expense of sending troops from your department to 
occupy Arizona. 

I congratulate you on your success against the Confederate forces under Sibley. If you 
can send an escort to the expressman who takes this 1 shall feel greatly obliged. 
I am. General, respectfully, 

JAMES H. CARLETON, 
Colonel, First California Voluiateers, Commanding. 



Headquarters District of Southern California, 
Fort Yuma, Cal., May 10, 1862. 
Major: I inclose herewith certified copies of letters just received from Lieutenant- 
Colonel West, dated, rcsjiectively, jMay 4, Mav 5, and May 6, 1862. By these vou will see 
how matters are progressing; at the Pimos Villages. In a private letter to myself Colonel 
West says : "You will recollect your request for five thousand pounds of Indian presents, 
which was declined. If it is not too late to get the same goods now as property, they 
would be of great service. Placed in charge of the depot party here, 1 believe they would 
work wonders." If the General will have those goods forwarded even now, they will be 
a great saving of money in the purchase of grain and flour at the sub-depot for the use of 
the troops stationed there, for the use of trains coming with supplies, and to be forwarded 
if necessary. If necessary, these goods can be receipted for and expended as money. It 
is doubtful if any troops are coming from the Rio Grande to make a stand against' us in 
Arizona. I am forwarding- supplies as fast as possible to the sub-depot, and when I have 
got enough in front to justify it, 1 shall, without delay, make still another stride onward. 
It is said the rainv season in Arizona commences about the twenty-fourth of June. Until 
then it is impossible to cross a large command, so I hear, from Tucson to tlie Rio Grande, 
a distance of three hundred miles. It will not do, for obvious reasons, to arrive on that 
river by small detachments. The General may rely upon it that all justifiable risks will 
be taken. I hear that nine Americans have just been murdered at Sally's mine in Ari- 
zona. I hope to be clothed with powers to regulate all matters in that Territory. Of 
course, I shall take upon myself all necessarj^ responsibility to give order and safety of 
life and property in that chaotic country. I am having the road up the Gila to Fort Breck- 
enridge reconnditered, and shall soon "occupy that post. You may know that before the 
Rebellion Fort Breckenridge was to be a six-company post. It was commenced at a site 
near the junction of the Aravapa and San Pedro, the oest point for a post in Arizona. 
The adobe walls of many l)uildings were made, and some were roofed over. These may 
he in good preservation. I would recommend that this fort, with a change of name, be 
reoccupied. The grazing in the Valley of the San Pedro, the year round, is reported as 
being very fine. Aside from its being one of the posts on the chain of communication 
from California to the Rio Grande, it is a fine place for weak and broken down animals 
to recruit. 

I am. Major, very respectfully, 

JAMES H. CARLETON, 
Colonel, First California Volunteers, Commanding. 

3Iaj. R. C. Drum, Assistant Adjutant-Geiieral U. S. Army, San Francisco, Cal. 



Headquarters Advance Guard California Volunteers, 
Pimos Villages, May 4, 1862. 

Lieutenant: I am as yet unable to report upon the supplies for troops available at 
this post with any degree of confidence. Mr. Ammi White, who was taken prisoner by 
the Rebels, was the only person here conversant with the Indian resources. I have as 
yet only succeeded in eking out daily a supply of forage for the command. I can neither 
get any stock of forage in advance, nor have "the Indians yet produced their flour in any 
but trifling quantities. I am, however, trading under every disadvantage. It is difficult 
to make this people understand the magnitude of our demands, and further, I liave noth- 
ing but promises to offer them in payment. When the manta* arrives I shall then 
understand whether they hold back their wheat and flour from fear of non-payment, or 
because they have but limited quantities on hand. The first of the new crop' of wheat 
should begili to come in within a fortnight. Of hay I can get but a mere daily ration. I 
am negotiating, with what prospect of success it is impossible to tell, for a standing field 
of whe'at, with the intention of feeding it and keeping the grain that comes in for future 
uses. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

J. R. WEST, 
Lieutenant-Colonel, First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding. 

To Lieut. B. C. Cutler, Acting Assistant Adjntant-GeneraJ , District of Southern California. 

* White cotton cloth. 



50 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

Headquarters Advance Guard California Volunteers, 
PiMOS Villages, May 5, 1862. 

Lieutenant: The following scale of prices has been agreed upon with the Indians: 

Four quarts flour, weighing four and one quarter pounds, for one yard manta. 

Seven quarts wheat, weighing thirteen pounds, for one yard manta. 

Four quarts pinole, weigliing five and one half pounds, for one yard manta. 

Fifty pounds hay or one hundred and fifty pounds of green fodder, for one yard manta. 

These prices are much for the interest of Government, and it is to be hoped that the 
facilities for purchasing of the Indians will enlarge. Manta may be called the staple 
article with them, but such goods as were asked for by the Colonel commanding, in his 
letters of December, 1861, on the Mojave expedition, are indispensably necessary for the 
practice of an economy of great advantage. The daily consumption of the present com- 
mand for forage is as follows : 

Yards manta. 

280 horses, wheat 12 pounds, 3,360) 3 g^^ Q^nds, equals 303i 

65 mules, wheat 9 pounds, 585) > 1 > i ^ 

345 animals, hay 14 pounds, 4,830 pounds, equals 96J 

Daily consumption of manta 400 

Not enough flour to make mention of has been brought in, and pinole is an article of 
small consumption, unless of necessity. A brief observation of these people and their 
habits shows me that they are disinclined to sell their produce or any other property 
unless the article offered in' exchange is such as they habitually and at the moment need. 
I do not believe that they would trade wheat for more manta than they wanted for the 
moment, and further, that after twenty thousand yards of that goods have been dis- 
tributed among them it would cease to be a ready currency. These opinions may be 
erroneous; my experience with the people has been of less than a week's duration, and 
that with only ]jromises to offer in payment. Obligations for near three thousand yards 
manta are already outstanding from the Quartermaster and Commissary Departments. 
Even without any increase of the command, the ten thousand yards daily expected at 
the post will be exhausted by the twentieth instant. If, when the manta arrives, the 
Indians do not bring in their' wheat more freely (the animals only get half rations to-day) 
1 see no recourse but to enter their wheat fields and cut the grain for forage. As yet 
negotiations for purchasing their standing grain have not been consummated. 1 enlarge 
more upon the difficulties of getting supplies here with reference to the part of the expe- 
dition that is in my rear than to the command now here. 1 am anxious to see a supply 
on hand for an advance, and shall endeavor to accomplish it. 
Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

J. E. WEST, 
Lieutenant-Colonel, First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding. 

To Benj. C. Cutler, First Lieutenant and Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, District of 
Southern California. 



Headquarters Advance Guard California Volunteers, 
PiMos Villages, May 6, 1862. 

Lieutenant: I have the honor to report fair progress in obtaining forage for tlie ani- 
mals now here, but as yet no prospect presents itself of my being able to accumulate a 
surplus for any onward movement, or to meet the wants of any additional number of 
animals suddenly placed here. Immediate payment in manta may work a change, but 
until that fact is'proved I must continue doubtful about daily supp'lies even. The crop 
of mesquite beans will mature in all this month, and some of the wheat; then the prob- 
lem will be solved of the dependence that can be placed upon supplies here. 1 state these 
facts for the information of the Colonel commanding, whose plans may hinge upon them 
somewhat. No flour comes in, and I fear will not as long as we call for their wheat so 
freely. If, however, we can get enough wheat for forage, the flour can be brought up 
from Fort Yuma in lieu of it. 

Very respectfullv, your obedient servant, 

J. R. WEST, 
Lieutenant-Colonel, First Infantry California Volunteers, Commanding. 

Lieut. Ben. C. Cutler, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, District of Southern California. 



Headquarters Column from California, 
Fort Barrett, Pimos Villages, Ariz., May" 24, 1862. 

Major: I have the honor to inform you that I arrived here yesterday evening. The 
weather has been intolerably hot during the last few days, but the troops have marched 
admirably notwithstanding. Colonel West, with five comjtanies of infantry and one of 
cavalry and two howitzers, you may remember, was ordered to occupy Tucson. He 



THE CALIFORNIA COLUMN. 51 

doubtless arrived there last Tuesday, the twentieth instant. I am in hourly expectation 
of hearing from him. 

The Rebels, from the best information I can get, have retired from Arizona towards the 
Rio Grande. The Apaches attacked Captain Hunter's company of Confederate troops 
near Dragoon Si)ring, and killetl four men and ran off thirty mules and twenty-five horses. 

The Pimos and ^iaricopa Indians have already sold to us for manta and on credit, one 
hundred and forty-three tliousand pounds of wheat. Of the new crop, it is estimated that 
they will have for sale, say two lumdred tons of wheat. I held a council with them 
to-day, and promised to have sent down from San Francisco the additional supply of 
manta and the Indian goods asked for in my letter of the tenth instant. 

I have directed a train of fifteen wagons to proceed to San Pedro, Cal., for these goods 
and for clothing for the troops. The depot Quartermaster at that point should be in- 
structed to forward these articles, and particularly the clothing, the moment it comes 
down from above. The troops must have the clotliing at once. Once their feet come to 
the hot ground and their clothing comes to be greatlv worn, they will suffer immeasurably. 

The Pimos and Maricopas are the finest Indians 1 have ever seen, and will be of great 
service to us and to the Overland ]\Iail Company, which eventually is certain to run over 
this route. The Apaches are their hereditary enemies. The Apaches have murdered 
people on the route and possessed themselves of arms, with which they now, for the first 
time, successfully assail the Pimos. The latter pray to be furnished with arms, not only 
to defend themselves, but to punish the Apaches. I beg i-espectfully to reciuest that the 
General wdll cause to be sent to my address, at Fort Barrett, one liundred stand of the 
old muskets (percaission) with ten thousand rounds of buck and ball cartridges, and with 
a supply of bullet-molds for the muskets. These can be issued direct to tlie chiefs, who 
will be responsible for them, or, which would not be as well, to the commanding officer 
at Fort Barrett, for the use of the Indians when necessary. 

The General may rely upon it, this woidd be a great favor to this worthy people, who 
have always been our fast friends. 1 shall proceed to Tucson in four or five days. I am 
now having all the wells repaired and made deeper which lie between the Gila'and that 
place on the old stage road. 

As soon as the Rebels are brushed away from Mesilla, the overland stage from Inde- 
pendence, Mo., via Santa Fe, Fort Thorn, Tucson, Los Angeles, to San Francisco, can 
commence its trips before the snows of winter again set in. 1 suggest that attention be 
drawn to this subject even now. 

I am. Major, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES H. CARLETOX, 

Colonel, First California Volunteers, Commanding. 

3IaJ. Richard C. Drum, Acting Adjutant-General U. S. Army, Sun Francisco, Cal. 



General Orders, ) Headquarters Column from California, 

No. 2. S Fort Barrett, Pimos Villages, Ariz., May 24, 1862. 

1. The post on the San Pedro River in this Territory hitherto known as Fort Brecken- 
ridge will hereafter be known as Fort Stanford, in honor of the Governor of the State of 
California. 

2. Lieut. -Col. Edward E. Eyre, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, with all the troops 
of his regiment now at Fort' Barrett, will proceed without delay to Fort Stanford and 
reoccupy it. Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre will take one hundred rounds of ammunition per 
man, and suljsistence for his command to include the thirtieth proximo. 

3. Lieut.-Col. Joseph R. West, First Infantry, California Volunteers, in command of 
the advance guard of this column, having taken possession of Tucson, in this Territory, 
will leave that town under the command of Capt. William McMullen, First Infantry, 
California Volunteers, and proceed with Fritz's company of cavalry, and such other 
troops from the advance guard as he may deem necessary, and reoccupy Fort Buchanan. 

4. The post returns of Fort Buchanan, "Tucson, and Fort Stanford, Ariz., for the month 
of May, 1862, will be forwarded through these headquarters to their proper destination. 

5. The Chief Quartermaster, the Medical Director, and Chief Commissary will give 
such orders as may be necessary to aid in carrying the foregoing paragrajihs into due 
effect. 

Bv order of Colonel Carleton. 

BENJAMIX C. CUTLER, 
First Lieutenant, First Infantry, California Volunteers, Acting Assist. Adjutant-General. 



Headquarters Column from California, 
Fort Barrett, Pimos Villages, Ariz., May 25, 1862. 

Major: The advance guard of this column, under Lieut.-Col. Joseph R. West, First 
Infantry, California Volunteers, took possession of Tucson, in this Territory, on the 
twentieth instant, without firing a shot. All the Secession troops who were in the Terri- 
tor3' and all of the Secessionists, so far as we can learn, have fled— the troops to the Rio 



52 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

Grande, the citizens to Sonora. Our arrival is hailed with great joy by all the people 
who remain. We shall doubtless be able to get some forage, flour, and beef, and perhaps 
sugar, from Sonora, but of this I will write you in detail from Tucson in a few days. 
A rumor comes from the Rio Grande that Sibley has met with a serious reverse. 
I am. Major, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES H. CARLETON, 

Colonel, First California Volunteers, Commanding. 

Maj. R. C. Drum, Assistant Adjutant-General U. S. Army, San Francisco, Cal. 



Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, June 21, 1862. 
The Adjutant-General, Washington, D. C. : 

General: My latest dispatches from Brigadier-General Carleton were received this 
morning, dated June first. The General was then at Fort Barrett, Pimos Villages, Ariz. 
The General says that the crossing "the Gila Desert was terrible." Lieutenant Shinn, 
commanding tlie light artillery battery, reached Fort Barrett on the thirty-first of May, 
and was to march for Tucson on the first of June ; his horses in good working order, but 
a little thin. Thus far tlie ex|)e(litinn has been successfully prosecuted. Arizona is 
securely occupied, notwithstandint; the predictionsof traitors that we should be compelled 
to abandon everything in the midst of the desert. 

General Carleton dispatched a messenger with a communication for General Canby, 
but he was unable to go up the Salinas on account of the high water in that river. The 
General would again make an effort to communicate with Canby from Tucson. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

G. WRIGHT, 
Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 



Headquarters Column of California, 
Tucson, Arizona, June 10, 1862. 

Major: I have the honor to report that, owing to the fact that all the buildings at Fort 
Buchanan had been destroyed, and to the fact that the site of that post being one of no 
military importance in thepresent condition of this Territory, I ordered its garrison to 
be witHdrawn to this post. The colors were put up there, thus consecrating the ground 
anew to the country, and the General Orders, so far as that post and Fort Breckenridge 
went, were literally "fulfilled. The troops at Fort Stanford (once Fort Breckenridge) will 
soon be withdrawn for similar reasons, with the additional one that its garrison, being 
cavalry, can find better grazing ground up the Santa Cruz River, nearer Sonora, where 
the horses will fare better and the troops l)e more cheaply and nmre readily supplied. 

I have here Shinn's Liglit Battery, with the horses in good condition, two companies 
of cavalry, with the horses in good' working order, and six companies of infantry. The 
remainder of the Column is at present at Fort Stanford and Fort Barrett. 

It would surprise you to see how the great heat and the dry air of the desert have 
affected our wagons. The tires have to be cut and reset, and a large amount of other 
repairs have to be made to keep them from g'->ing to pieces. This, with our limited 
means for such work, is a great task, but every preparation is making for an onward 
movement as soon as the rains fall to fill the natural tanks between here and the Rio 
Grande. Now, not over one company at a time could ijass a night at many of the wells, 
which are a march apart. The twenty-fourth of June is the average time when the rains 
commence. 

I am making every endeavor to get supplies together against that time. Meantime, I 
shall try to straighten u]i matters here, so that when a man does have his throat cut, his 
house robbed, or his fields ravaged, he may at least have the consolation of knowing there 
is some law that will reach him who does the injury. I inclose herewith a paper which 
seems to touch this point. I have not called it a proclamation, because, nowadays, every 
military commander makes one, and I had hoped to shun, in this respect, their example. 
Whatever name the instrument may go by, I hope the General will see nothing in it that 
is not just and called for by the necessities of the case. It alreadj^ seems to have gratify- 
ing results. 

I shall send to Fort Yuma for confinement, starting them to-day, nine of the cutthroats, 
gamlalers, and loafers who have infested this town to the great bodily fear of all good cit- 
izens. Nearly everv one, I believe, has either killed his man or been engaged in helping 
to kill him. I shall send on a detailed account of the causes which justify their arrest 
and removal from the Territory. They should l)e held prisoners at Alcatraz until the end 
of the war. If discharged at Fort Yuma they will get back here again and give trouble. 

I have sent to arrest Mr. Sylvester Mowry and all the people at liis mine. It is possible 
I shall be obliged to hold Mr. Mowry as a prisoner. That he has been guilty of overt as 
well as covert acts of treason there is hardly a doubt. I consider his presence in this 



THE CALIFORNIA COLUMN. 53 

Territory as dangerous to its peace and prosperity. Inclosed are cojiies of certain charges 
against him, and of the instructions for his arrest. 

In a few days I will inform the General of my fortune and prospects in getting supplies 
from Sonora. 

Thus far 1 have been unable to get any reliable news from the Rio Grande. 
I am, Major, very respectfullj', your obedient servant, 

JAMES H. CARLETON, 

Colonel, First California Volunteers, Commanding. 

Maj. R. C. Drum, Assistant Adjutant-General U. S. Army, San Francisco, Cal. 

MowRY Silver Mine, May 11, 1862. 
General Carleton : 

Dear Sir: Seeing that you and your army have advanced to Arizona Territory and 
have gloriously taken possession of that Territory from those impudent Rebels, I take 
pains to post you and your army up so you may know what is going about and around 
you. 

Mr. Sylvester Mowry is one of the officers of the Southern Rebellion, and has all the 
time furnished ammunition to the rebellion party and keep a good many in his i^lace (at 
the mine) for to attack your troops. Nothing but a few weeks ago he has sent by Ser- 
geant Ford three thousand caps, powder, etc. His blacksmith and carpenter are raising 
a six-pounder brass piece for to receive Northerners, as he says himself, and has offered 
to bet .|100 that he would be Governor of the Territory in le"ss than six months. That 
was last March when he offered that bet, and that he, with his twenty Americans (all 
Southerners) could whi)) a hundred of your troops, etc. ; and he has made port holes all 
through his corral for that purpose. 

If you are'going up there I advise you not to go during the daytime, as he has two men 
constantly on the hill looking out for any of your men a coming. 

It has to be during the night, after sundown or early in the morning, and corral him in 
his house, and a guide to enter the corral through the big gateway, as he leaves inside 
tlie corral plenty of Mexicans there to be had, to show you where lie lives, and tell you 
all about him, and there is less than half a mile anotlier town where there is a lot ot 
Southerners also, but you can easily cut them off if you choose, unless they don't take 
the trail to Santa Cruz, Mexico, as "they very probably will, as good many have already 
left. 

Any other news that you may wish, I shall be very happy to serve you and your 
people. 

I remain respectfully yours, 

T. SCHEUNER, 
Metallurgist, M. S. M. 

Headquarters Column from California, 
Tucson, June 8, 1862. 

Colonel: The Colonel commanding confides to your charge the duty of arresting and 
conveying to this post, as a prisoner, one Sylvester Mowry, now at the Patagonia Mines, 
some iiinetv miles distant from here near the Sonora line. 

Charges of a treasonable complicity with Rebels have been preferred against Mowry, 
and there is little doubt but that he has rendered assistance and furnished supplies to 
their forces. From the moment that he falls into your hands you will interdict all com- 
munications by word or sign between him and his people, except such as you shall per- 
sonally supervise. 

You will seize all his personal papers and any documents of a political character that 
you may find on the premises and bring them to these head(iuarters. 

You w'ill also take into custody and bring as prisoners to this post all persons whom 
you find at the Patagonia Mines, using such discretion in your control of them as will 
prevent their doing anything to the prejudice of your movements or to the United States 
Government. 

You will see that your prisoners have supplies for the road ; and you may, if necessary, 
use any subsistence "that falls into vour hands at the mines. 

You 'must bring every man that you arrest to this post without fail. It is reported that 
a respectable German "was murdered quite recently at the Patagonia Mines. You will 
make careful inquiry into this matter and report the facts. 

In order to protect the interests of the owners of the Patagonia Mines, on taking pos- 
session of the same, you will make a minute inventory of all the movable property com- 
prising mining implements and machinery, cattle, horses, arms, i)r('Vi^^i()iis, and any 
other articles appertaining to the mine. This inventory must be verilicd and signed in 
duplicate by yourself and by the two officers next in rank of your coniniaiul. One copy 
of this inveiitory you will leave with the commanding officer of the guard that you place 
in charge of the' mine, who will be held responsible for the safe keeping and preservation 
of the property named upon it. You will bring all supplies, arms, and ammunition 
found at the mine, to this post, using of either such as you may need for your command. 



54 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

As soon as you have complied with the foregoing instructions, you will leave such 
guard in charge of the mine and property as you may deem adequate for security. Cap- 
tain Willis and his twenty-five infantrymen will perhaps be sufficient, but of this you 
must be the judge. Theia return with the remainder of your command to this jiost. 
Should an opportunity offer in the meantime, you will report progress to these head- 
quarters. At the Patagonia Mine, and in the vicinity and en route thereto, you will 
ascertain and report upon the facilities available for subsisting troops and foraging 
animals. 

The force intrusted to your command for the execution of the foregoing duties com- 
prises sixty of the First Cavalry, California Volunteers, Captain Fritz commanding, and 
twt'nty-tive of the First Infantry, California Volunteers, Captain Willis; the latter officer 
with twelve men you will find in advance at Brevort's Ranch. 

The cavalry have rations to the twentieth, the infantry to the thirtieth instant. 

The whole command is supplied with fifty rounds of ammunition per man. 

Inclosed herewith is an extract from a letter which should claim your careful consid- 
eration. 

1 have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

BEN. C. CUTLER, 

First Lieutenant, First Infantry, California Volunteers, Acting Assist. Adjutant-General. 

Lieut.-Col. Edward E. Eyre, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, Tucson. 



Special Orders,) Headquarters Column from California, 

No. 17. i Tucson, Arizona, June 16, 1862. 

1. A Board of officers, to consist of Lieut.-Col. Joseph R. West, First Infantry, Cali- 
fornia Volunteers, and Captain Nicholas S. Davis, First Infantry, California Volunteers, 
will assemble at this post at 4 p. m. to-day, or as soon thereafter as practicable, to inves- 
tigate certain charges and facts tending to show that Mr. Sylvester Mowry of the Pata- 
gonia Mines, in this Territory, is an enemy to the Government of the United States, and 
that he has been in treasonable correspondence and collusion with well known Secession- 
ists, and has offered them aid and comfort when they were known publicly to be ene- 
mies to the legally constituted authority and Government of the United States. 

The Board will be duly sworn to the faithful performance of its duty, and will examine 
witnesses on oath, and will examine and make certified extracts from such documents as 
may be laid before them, which may have immediate or important bearing on these 
points, and the Board will report, in writing and in full, the evidence it receives on all 
these matters, and its opinions whether or not there are sufficient grounds to restrain of 
his liberty and bring to trial before a Military Commission the said Mr. Sylvester Mowry. 

2. The Board will also inquire into the truth of a report that a respectable German 
citizen was recently murdered at or near Patagonia Mines, in this Territory, and report 
in writing the evidence in the case and their opinion, in the event they find the report to 
be true, as to who are probably the guilty parties. 

The record of this investigation will be made up separately from that ordered in the 
first paragraph hereof. 

3. Second Lieut. Erastus W. Wood, First Infantry, California Volunteers, is appointed 
Secretary of the Board, and will be duly sworn by the President thereof to a faithful dis- 
charge of his duties as such. 

Bv order of Colonel Carleton. 

BEN. C. CUTLER, 
First Lieut., First Infantry, Cal. Vols., A. A. A. Gen'l. 



Headquarters Column from California, 
Tucson, Arizona, June 16, 1862. 

Lieut.-Col. Joseph R. West, President of a Board of Officers convened by Special Orders JVo. 
17, current series, from these Headquarters : 

Colonel: The Colonel commanding the Column directs me to inclose to you, as one 
of the charges against Mr. Sylvester Mowry, the original of a letter, directed to General 
Carleton, from the Mowrv Silver Mines, on the eleventh of May, 1862, and signed by one 
"T. Scheuner, Metallurgist, ^M. S. M. ;" also a paper in your own handwriting, purport- 
ing to be a statt'Hient ()t'<ine William Pyburn, which seems to touch on the matter of the 
alleged furnishing of Captain Hunter's men at the Patagonia Mines with percussion 
caps. 

The Board will also examine such documentary evidence as Lieut.-Col. Eyre may have 
brought from the Patagonia Mines and placed in your custody. 

The Board will examine into the facts touching the known political character of one 
Robinson, and whether he has been a guest and received aid and comfort recently from 
Mr. Mowry, and in all matters touching this case the Board will question the persons 
brought by Colonel Eyre from the Patagonia Mines, and such other persons as may be 



THE CALIFORNIA COLUMN. 55 

thought to be important witnesses in this matter not herein named, but who may become 
known to the Board during its investigation. 

The testimony and evidence you will receive will be ex parte, and your inquiry will be 
analogous to that made by a Grand Jury in the administration of justice by the civil 
authorities. 

1 am, sir, resiiectfully, your obedient servant, 

BEN. C. CUTLER, 

First Lieutenant, First Infantry, California Volunteers. 



Headquarters Column from California. 
Tucson, Ariz., July 16, 1862. 

The Board having examined the foregoing personal testimony and documentary evi- 
dence, as directed by Special Orders No. 17, and by the letters of the Colonel command- 
ing the Column from California to the President of this Board, which said order and 
letter are copied on and made part of these records, are of opinion that said Svlvester 
Mowry is an enemy to the Government of the United States, and that he has Ijeen in 
treasonable correspondence and collusion with well known Secessionists, and has offered 
them aid and comfort when they were known publicly to be enemies to the legally con- 
stituted authority and Government of the United States, and that there are sufficient 
.ymunds to restrain the said Sylvester Mowry of his liberty, and bring him to trial before 
a Military Commission. 

J. R. WEST, 
Lieutenant-Colonel, First Infantrj', California Volunteers, President. 

CHARLES A. SMITH, 

Cajitain, Fifth Infantry, California Volunteers. 

NICHOLAS S. DAVIS, 
Captain, First Infantry, California Volunteers. 

Erastus W. Wood, Second Lieutenant, First Infantry, California Volunteers, Secretarj'. 



To all ivhom it may concern: 

The Congress of the LTnited States has set apart a portion of New Mexico, and organized 
it into a Territory complete by itself. 

This is known as the Territory of Arizona. It comprises within its limits all the country 
eastward from the Colorado River, which i.-^ now occupied by the forces of the LTnitetl 
States, known as the "Column from California." And as the flag; of the United States 
shall be carried by this Column still further eastward, these limits will extend in that 
direction until they reach the furthest geographical boundary of this Territory. 

Now, in the present chaotic state in which Arizona is found to be, with no civil officers 
to administer the laws, indeed with an utter absence of all civil authority, and with no 
security of life or property within its borders, it becomes the duty of the undersigned to 
represent the authority oi the United States over the people of Arizona, as well as over 
all those who compose, or are connected with, the Column from California. 

Thus by virtue of his office as Military Commander of the United States forces now 
here, and to meet the fact that wherever within our boundaries our colors fly, there the 
sovereign power of our country must at once be acknowledged and law and order at once 
prevail, the undersigned as a Military Governor assumes control of this territory until 
such time as the President of the United States shall otherwise direct. 

Thus also it is hereby declared that until civil officers shall be sent by the Government 
to organize the civil Courts for the administration of justice, the Territory of Arizona is 
hereby placed under martial law. 

Trials for capital offenses shall be held by a Military Commission, to be composed of 
not more than thirteen nor less than nine commissioned officers. 

The rules of evidence shall be those customary in practice under the common law. 

The trials shall be public, and shall be trials of record; and the mode of procedure 
shall be strictly in accordance with that of Courts-martial in the Army of the United 
States. 

Unless the public safety absolutely requires it, no execution shall follow conviction 
until the orders in the case by the President shall be known. 

Trials for minor offenses shall be held under the same rules, except that for these a 
Commission of not more than five nor less than three commissioned officers may sit, and 
a vote of the majority shall determine the issue. In these cases the orders of the officer 
organizing the Commission shall be final. 

All matters relating to rights in property and lands which may be in dispute shall be 
determined for the time being by a Military Commission, to be composed of not more 
than five nor less than three commissioned officers. Of course, appeals from the decis- 
ions of such Commissions can be taken to the civil Courts when once the latter have been 
established. 



56 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

There are certain fundamental rules for the government of the people of this Territory, 
which will be rigidlj^ enforced : 

1. No man who has arrived at lawful age shall be permitted to reside within this Terri- 
tory who does not, without delay, subscribe to the oath of allegiance to the United 
States. 

2. No words or acts calculated to impair that veneration which all good patriots should 
feel for our country and Government will be tolerated within this Territory or go unpun- 
ished if sufhcient proof be had of them. 

3. No man who does not pursue some lawful calling, or have some legitimate means of 
support, shall be permitted to remain in the Territory. 

Having no thought or motive in all this but the good of the people, and aiming only to 
do right, the undersigned confidently hopes and expects in all he does to further these 
ends to have the hearty cooperation "of every good citizen and soldier in Arizona. 

All this is to go into effect from and after tliis date, and will continue in force unless 
disapproved or modified by General George Wright, United States Army, commanding 
the Department of the Pacific, under whose orders the Column from California has taken 
the field. 

Done at headquarters of the Column from California, in Tucson, Ariz., this eighth day 
of June, A. D. 1862. 

JAMES H. CARLETON, 
Colonel First California Volunteers, Major U. S. Sixth Cavalry. 

Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, June 28, 1862. 

The proclamation of Col. James H. Carleton, now Brigadier-General of Volunteers, U. 
S. Army, dated at his headqiiarters in Tucson, Territory of Arizona, June 8, 1862, is hereby 
approved and confirmed, and will remain in full force until the civil authority shall be 
reestablished in the Territory. 

G. WRIGHT, 
Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 



Executive Department, Territory of Arizona, 
Tucson, Arizona, June 11, 1862. 
To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known tliat under the authority assumed by the undersigned in the proclamation 
placing the Territory of Arizona under martial law, which proclamation was dated at 
Tucson, in Arizona, June eighth, A. D. 1862, I hereby appoint Acting Assistant Adjutant- 
General Benjamin Clark Cutler to be Secretary of State of the Territory of Arizona, while 
the said Territory remains under martial law, or until the time when a successor may be 
appointed to take his place. 

His duties shall be to record and to preserve all the acts and proceedings of the Gov- 
ernor in his Executive Department, and to transmit an authentic copy of these acts and 
proceedings, through the General commanding the Department of the Pacific, to the 
President of the United States on the last day of every month. 

And be it also known that the Secretary of State of the Territory, while it is under 
martial law, is hereby empowered to administer oaths. 

Given under my hand at Tucson, Ariz., June 11, 1862. 

JAMES H. CARLETON, 

. Military Governor of Arizona. 



Executive Department, Territory of Arizona, 
Tucson, Ariz., June 11, 1862. 
To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known, that by virtue of the authority vested in myself as Military Governor of 
Arizona, I hereby empower the following officers with the right to administer oaths 
within this Territory while it shall remain under martial law; that is to say: 

Lieut.-Col. Joseph R. West, First Infantry, Cal. Vols. ; Lieut.-Col. Edward E. Eyre, 
First Cavalrv, Cal. Vols. ; Mai. Edwin A. Rigg, First Infantry, Cal. Vols. ; Maj. Theodore 
A. Coult, Fifth Infantry, Cal. Vols. ; Maj. David Fergusson, First Cavalry, Cal. Vols. ; 
Capt. Treaclwell Moore, Assistant Quartermaster, U. S. Army; also the Presidents and 
Judge- Advocates of Military Commissions, when such Commissions are in session. 

JAMES H. CARLETON, 
Colonel First Cal. Vols., Major U. S. Sixth Cavalry. 
By the Governor. 

Ben. C. Cutler, 
Actg. Asst. Adj.-Genl., Military Secretary of State. 



THE CALIFORNIA COLUMN. 57 

Executive Department, Arizona Territory, 
Tucson, June 12, 1862. 
To all whom it may concern: 

Be it known: 

I. That from and after this date a monthly tax of five (|5) dollars for license to trade 
shall be levied on all merchants in Tucson,' Arizona, including those who shall traftic 
within a mile in every direction from its suburbs, whose monthly sales of merchandise 
amount to five hundred ($500) dollars, or under, and an additional tax of one ($1) dollar 
per month for each additional monthly sale of one hundred ($100) dollars. 

II. That every keeper of a gambling house within tlie aforesaid limits shall pay a tax 
of one hundred'(llOO) dollars per month for each and every table in said house whereon 
any banking game is played. 

III. That every keeper of a bar, where wines, spirituous or malt liquors are to be sold, 
shall pav a tax of one hundred ($100) dollars per month to keep said bar. 

IV. All keepers of gambling houses, for the non-payment of license for gambling tables, 
will be fined fifty ($50) dollars for the first offense; for the second ofiense he shall have 
his money, implements, tools, etc., seized, and the same shall be confiscated, and he shall 
pay a fine of one hundred ($100) dollars, and be forbidden to again gamble in this Terri- 
tory. 

V. Any person who, after this date, shall sell, without a license, any intoxicating liquors 
or drinks, shall be fined fifty ($50) dollars for the first offense; for the second offense he 
shall pay a fine of one hundred ($100) dollars, and forfeit all the liquors in his possession. 

VI. The commanding officer of Tucson is hereby empowered to grant licenses under 
these rules, and collect all taxes, fines, and forfeitures. The moneys thus collected sliall 
be turned over to the Medical Director, who shall receipt for the s'ame and add it to the 
Hospital Fund, to be used exclusively for the benefit of the sick and wounded soldiers 
belonging to the Column from California until further orders. 

VII. All sales made by the Government of the United States shall be exempt from tax- 
ation, and no license is necessary for the sale of forage, subsistence stores, fruits, or vege- 
tables. 

By order of Colonel Carleton. 

BEN. C. CUTLER, 
Actg. Asst. Adjt.-Genl., Military Secretary of State. 

Carleton was commissioned Brigadier-General of Volunteers April 28, 
1862. He received his commission and assumed the rank and title of 
Brigadier-General about the middle of June, same year. 

Headquarters Column from California, 
Tucson, Ariz., July 22, 1862. 

Maj. Richard C. Drum, Assistant Adjutant-General, San Francisco, Cal. : 

Major : In my letter to vou dated June eighteenth I informed you that I sent Express- 
man John Jones, Sergeant ^Vllceling, of Company F, First Infantry, California Volunteers, 
and a Mexican guide named Chares, with communications for' General Canby. These 
men started from Tucson on the evening of the fifteenth of June ; on the eighteenth they 
were attacked by a party of Apaches, and Sergeant Wheeling and the guide. Chares, were 
killed, and Jones, almost by a miracle, succeeded in getting through the Indians and, 
after a hot pursuit on theirpart, made out to reach the Rio Grande at a point known as 
Picacho, six miles above Mesilla. Here he was taken prisoner by the Secessionists, who 
brought him before Colonel Steele (William Steele, late Second Dragoons), who examined 
him, took his dispatches, and threw him into jail. He managed, however, to get word 
to General Canby that he was there, and that the Column from California was really 
coming, an achievement that was considered absolutely impracticable. However, as soon 
as Steele ascertained this matter as a fact, hin-ried preparations were made to abandoned 
the country. Meantime General Canby had sent a large force to Fort Craig to move on 
Mesilla as soon as transjiortation could'he ])rovided. 

A strong reconnoitering force, under Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre, left Tucson on the 
twenty-first of June, and, after a hard march, arrived at the Rio Grande, near Fort 
Thorn, on the fourth of July. On the fifth this force occupied that work, it having been 
abandoned by the enemy. Here the colors were inin up by the California troops. Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Eyre was" then reinforced by a squadron of' the United States Tliird Cav- 
alry, and, having constructed a raft and built a boat, was at the last advices about to 
cross the river to march on Fillmore and Fort Bliss, in Texas. Steele meantime had 
abandoned Mesilla, and was making his way to Texas. The Mexican population was 
rising on every hand, and were killing his men and running off his stock. It is said that 
Teel's Battery, C. S. A., the one taken from Canby at Valverde, had been attacked some 
thirty miles below Fort Bliss and taken by the people, who had hovered around it to the 
number of one thousand five hundred. It'was believed that neither Steele nor Teel would 
ever teach Texas. 

Sibley and Colonel Riely had fallen back on Texas in May, leaving Steele with what 
was considered force enough to hold Arizona. 

All this news came last night; it was brought by Captain McCleave, who had been 



58 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS, 

exchanged for two Lieutenants, one of whom was Steele's Adjutant, who had been taken 
by Captain Fritz, First Cavalry, California Volunteers. Captain Fritz went after Colonel 
Steele with a flag of truce to effect the exchange. He overtook Colonel Steele twenty 
miles below Fort Fillmore in full retreat. 

As you have been informed, the uncommon drought of this summer had so dried up 
the country that it was impracticable to move a large force in the direction of the Rio 
Grande until the rains commenced falling. Usually this occurs by the twenty-fourth of 
June, but this year there has been but little fall even yet. The Column, however, has 
been taking the road by installments, commencing with Robert's company of infantry 
and Cremony's company of cavalry, which were sent with twenty-five thousand povmds 
of corn and thirty days' rations for Eyre, in case he was obliged to fall back to the Rio 
de Sauz, one hundred and twenty-eight miles from Tucson, starting on the ninth of July. 
(See letter to Cul<inel West, marked A, herewith inclosed.) 1 also inclose Colonel Eyre's 
report, dated at Fort Thorn, July 6, 1862. This officer deserves great credit for his enter- 
prise. 1 trust the General will notice the conduct of himself and men. This report is 
marked B. I also send a subsequent report of Colonel Eyre's, dated July 8, 1862, marked 
C, and also one still later, dated July 11, 1862, marked D, and still another, dated July 
14, 1862, marked E, and also a letter from Colonel Chivington, marked F; also a letter 
from General Canby, marked G, and letters from General Canby to Colonel Chivington, 
dated June 9, June 16, June 18, June 27, July 1, and July 4, 1862. 

I also inclose General Orders Nos. 10 and il, from these headquarters. 

The troops marched on the days specified. I shall leave this post to-morrow and move 
rapidly to the front. If a demonstration on northwestern Texas will serve as a diversion 
in favor of forces landing on the coast, that State will soon be ours. The country is still 
dry, but we shall do our best. 

Respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JAMES H. CARLETON, 
Brigadier-General, U. S. Army. 

Headquarters First Cavalry, California Volunteers, 
Fort Thorn, Ariz., July 6, 1862. 

Lieutenant : In compliance with orders received from the Colonel commanding, dated 
June 17, 1862, I have the honor to make the following report: 

June ^1.— Left Tucson at 3 o'clock a. m., with Captain Fritz, Lieutenants Haden and 
Baldwin, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, and one hundred and forty men. 
Marched thirty-five miles to Cienegas de los Pimos, and encamped at 12:30 p. m. Water 
and grazing abundant. The road to-day is very good, with the exception of two or three 
hills. At a distance of about twenty-eight miles the road descends into the cienega, then 
seven miles to water near the burned station which stood on the hill to the right of the 
road. Course, southeast ; thirty-five miles. 

June 22.— Left cienega at 6 a. m., marching over a high rolling countrj'^, but good wagon 
road and splendid grazing all the way for a distance of about twenty-two miles, when 
the road descends through a cafion for "one mile, and then opens on the San Pedro Val- 
ley ; two miles further the river is reached at the overland mail station. Strong bridge 
over the river. Water and grass abundant. Wood very scarce. Course, northeast; 
twenty-five miles. 

There found the name of Jones, the expressman. 

June 23. — Left camp at crossing of the San Pedro at 7:30 a. m. The road at once leaves 
the river and enters a valley about one mile wide and four miles long, when it terminates 
at the foot of the mesa, which is gained through a narrow canon in which is a long but 
not very steep hill. The canon is about one and one half miles, when the top of the mesa 
is reached ; then about fourteen miles to overland station at Dragoon Springs, at which 
place we arrived at 12 :30 p. m. and camped. Found water sufficient by digging up the 
canon two miles, the trail to which is difficult in some places to lead animals over. 
Course, northeast; nineteen and one half miles. 

June 24. — Left Dragoon Springs at 10:30 a. m. AVas detained in consequence of scarcity 
of water. Marched twenty-five miles over an excellent road to Ewell's Station, arriving 
there at 5 :80 p. m. Sent Captain Fritz and six men with spades to examine the spring in 
the mountain north of the station. He had returned to station by the time the command 
arrived, and reported only enough water for the men. Camped at 6 p. m. Course, north- 
east ; twenty-five miles. 

June 25.— Left Ewell's Station at 1 a. m. Marched fifteen miles over a very hilly and 
in places a very rocky road to station in Apache Pass and camped at 6 A. m. Water 
scarce. No grass. Course, northeast; fifteen miles. 

About 12 M., I being engaged at the spring superintending the watering of animals, it 
being necessary to dip it with tin cups, four shots were heard in the vicinity of where the 
horses that had been watered were being grazed under a strong guard. Immediately 
thereafter it was reported tliat Indians were in siglit, and that the guard had fired to give 
the alarm. Almost immediately thereafter it was reported to me that the Indians were 
waving a white fiag. I at once "started for them, taking with me a white flag, and Mr. 
Newcomb as interpreter. At the end of about one hour I succeeded in getting sufficiently 
near one of them to be understood. I explained to him what I desired, and asked for 
the chief. At this time at least seventy-five to one hundred Indians were in sight, many 
of them mounted on good-looking horses, and all of them armed with firearms — some 



THE CALIFORNIA COLUMN. 59 

with rifles and six-shooting pistols. Of the latter I observed a great number, and occa- 
sionally single-barreled shotguns. 

When the chief came forward 1 told him we were Americans, and that our great Cap- 
tain lived at Washington ; that we wished to be friends of the Apaches ; that at present 
I was only traveling through their country, and desired that he would not interfere with 
my men or animals; that a great Captain" was at Tucson with a large number of soldiers; 
that he wished to have a talk with all the Apache chiefs and to make peace with them 
and make them presents. He professed a great desire to be friendly with the Americans, 
and assured me that neither my men nor animals should be molested. 

He asked for tobacco and something to eat. I gave him all that could possibly be 
.spared, and we parted with a request on his jiart that I would meet him at the same place 
at sunset. On my return it was reported to me that three of the men were missing. A 
party of thirty was at once sent out in the vicinity of where the firing was heard, and 
after an hour's search the bodies Of the missing nien were found, stripped of all their 
clothing, and two of them scalped. Each was shot through the chest with firearms and 
lanced through the neck. 

They were victims to their own imprudence, the entire command having been repeat- 
edly warned hv me not to wander from camp. It appears they had started, leading their 
horses, from the sjiring where the watering was being done, over the ridge into another 
gulch, when they came on the Indians and were murdered. The Indians succeeded in 
getting one horse. When the bodies of our murdered men were found, instant pursuit 
of the Indians was made, some of whom were seen on a hill half a mile distant; but being 
unable to come up witli them a return to camp was ordered, carrying in the dead bodies, 
which were buried, the entire command being present. 

The animals now being all watered, or as much as could be obtained for them, and 
there being very little grass in the pass, at 6 p. M. left camp, marched out and made a 
dry camiJ on the plain, two miles beyond the caiion. Course, east-northeast; foiir miles. 

At 11 p. M. a volley of six or eight shots was fired into camp, 'wounding Acting As- 
sistant Surgeon Kittridge in the head and killing one horse at the picket line. 

June 26. — Left dry camp No. 1 at 3:30 a. m. ; marched fifteen miles over an excellent road 
to San Simon Station ; tnen turned square to the right, and marched thirteen miles up 
the dry bed of the river to a large cienega, and camped at 2 p. m. Course, east-northeast 
and southeast ; twenty-eight miles. 

This is a splendid camping place, water and grass in the greatest abundance. 

The proper road to the cienega turns to the right from tlie stage road, about six miles 
fi-om Apacne Pass and around the point of mountain. It comes on the San Simon one 
mile below the water. 

At 12 midnight camp was alarmed by a shot fired by one of the guards. On examination 
it was found to be a coyote which he mistook in the dark for an Indian crawling through 
the scattered bushes, but which he instantly killed. This was a very hard day's march 
on men and animals, being obliged to leave ih-y camp without lireakfast owing to the 
scarcity of water, having but eight five-gallon kegs in wliicli to t-arry water for tTie men, 
and not being able to get at the pass as much water as the animals r&iuired. 

June 'Z7. — Laid over. 

Jime 2S. — Left camp at Cienega of San Simon at 4 p. m. ; marched five miles north-north- 
east to the pass in the mountains; road heavy. On arriving at the pass fotmd the road 
through it very good, and the pass wide. Marched fifteen miles from San Simon, and 
made dry camp No. 2 at 10:15 p. m. Course, north-northeast; fifteen miles. 

June 29. — Left dry camp at 4 a. m. ; marched nine miles to Lightendorffer's Well, in 
Round Mountain Canon; road good; well on right of and close to the road. It is about 
eight feet square and seven deep ; rock bottom. Halted at well one hour; obtained a very 
limited supjily of water for my command. 

This is a tolerably good camping place for three companies of infantry. By care they 
could obtain sufficient water, which is good. 

Left Liglitcnddrtier's Well at 8 a. m. ; marched twenty-two miles to Densmore's Station 
(Soldier's Farewell) at 5 p. m., and halted. Discovered here a small spring about two or 
three miles up the arroyo north of station, and a hole of bad water eight hundred 
yards south of station. Left Densmore's Station at 8 p. M. ; marched fourteen miles to 
Cow Springs, and camped at 12 midnight. Water and grazing abundant. The road from 
the Cienega of San Simon to this place is good for loaded teams, excepting four or five 
miles to the pass. Course, northeast ; forty-six miles. 

Soon after leaving Densmore's Station found two men on the side of the road 
under rather suspicious circumstances; took three letters from them; one directed to 
commander of Federal forces at Tucson, or en roitte. Put the men in charge of 
of guard and broitght them back. Letters herewith inclosed, marked Nos. 1, 2, and 3. 
There discovered nine men camped, who proved to be a party sent by Colonel Chiving- 
ton, commanding Southern Military District of New Mexico at Fort Craig, with a letter to 
Colonel Carleton, with verbal orders to deliver it to the commander of the advance of 
his column when met with, and return to Fort Craig. Read the communication, and 
returned Mr. Milligan and one of his party with the answer to Fort Craig, at 3 p. m. on 
the thirtieth instant, at which place he would arrive on the evening of the 2d proximo. 
Letter of Colonel Chivington, and my answer thereto, herewith inclosed. 

Prom Mr. Milligan I learned of the capture of Jones, the expressman, bvthe Secession- 
ists at the Pichaco, near Mesilla, his two companions having been killed by Indians 
at Apache Pass, and himself chased by them for a great many miles. This information 
was brought to Fort Craig by a friendly Mexican who was present at the capture of Jones. 



60 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

June 30. — Laid over. 

July 1. — ^This morning a number of men were discovered by the lookout approaching 
from the direction of the Pino Alto Gold Mines ; sent out a party and brought them into 
camp. They proved to be a party of thirty Mexican miners returning to Sonora in con- 
sequence of the almost total absence of provisions at the mines. Allowed them to pro- 
ceed on their journey. 

Left Cow Sin-ings at 8 a. m. ; arrived at the Rio Miembres at 1 p. m., and camped two 
miles above station. Water and grazing abundant, and of the best quality ; road good. 
Course, northeast; sixteen miles. 

July 2. — Laid over. , 

At 1 o'clock this morning one of the pickets discovered persons approaching camp. 

Thev were arrested and brought in, twelve men and two women, one a German, the . 
other Mexicans. They also were from the mines en route for Mesilla. Ordered them 
confined in order to secure the secrecy of my movements. At 9 a. m. sent out party of 
twenty men to examine Cooke's Cafion, with orders to arrest, if possible, all persons they 
may meet with, and remain at Cooke's Spring until the Cduimand came up. 

July 3. — Left Miembres River at 6 a. m. Marched twelve miles over a good road to Cooke's 
Pass." From here to Si;mmit, road hilly;, a long, rocky, but not very steep hill brings you 
to the top of the pass ; from there the descent to the spring is good. Distance from pass 
to spring six miles. Course, north-northeast and nortneast ; eighteen miles. 

There came up with the party sent in advance yesterday. They reported no person in 
sight and no fresh traces. 

J^dy 4. — Left Cooke's Spring at 6:30 a. m. Took Fort Thorn road, which keeps a north- 
nortlieast course, while the Mesilla road turns to the right immediately at the spiings 
and bears east-northeast, passing the overland mail station which is seen on the hill 
about a half mile distant. Marched thirteen miles to Mule Spring (good road). Here no 
water could be found, even by digging, having sent a partj^ in advance with spades for 
that purpose. 

Left Mule Spring at 12 m. Marched twenty-two miles to the Rio Grande, and camped 
at 7 p. M., near Fort Thorn. Course, north-northeast and northeast; thirty-five miles. 

The road for about eight miles after leaving Mule Sjiring is very good, wlien it enters a 
rolling country, the hills becoming more ancl more abrupt for a distance of about six 
miles, when it descends into a broad canon, which is followed (on a good road) to the 
river. 

Immediately on making camp the national colors were raised amid the long and con- 
tinued cheers of the assembled command. This was the first time the stars and stripes 
floated on the Rio Grande below Fort Craig since the occupation of the country by the 
Confederate troops, and it being the anniversary of our National Independence was not 
calculated to dampen the ardor of the command. 

We are now within thirty-five miles of the enemy, which the prisoners whom I have 
taken variously estimate from two hundred to eight hundred strcmg. As soon as the 
horses have a little recruited — they being considerably reduced on a march of about three 
hundred miles through a broiling sun, and over a country utterly destitute of W'ater for 
distances ranging from twenty-five to sixty miles — will reconiioiter his position and 
endeavor to ascertain his strength, which I have but little doubt of accomplishing, and 
in case he does not greatly (nitnumber me, will give him a fight. 

July 5.— Moved three miles down the river to and reoccupied Fort Thorn; three miles. 
I am, Lieutenant, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

E. E. EYRE, 
Lieutenant-Colonel, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, Commanding. 

Lieut. Ben. C. Cutlee, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Column from California, Tucson, 
Arizona. 



orning of the sixth instant an express arrived from Fort Craig with a coni- 
from Colonel Chivington, First Colorado Volunteers, commanding Southern 



Headquarters First Cavalry, California Volunteers, 
Fort Thorn, Ariz., July 8, 1862. 

Lieutenant: I have the honor to report the reoccupation of Fort Thorn by the squad- 
ron of First Cavalry, Califurnia Volunteers, under my command on the evening of the 
fifth instant. Immediately thereafter the national colors were run up, and the old flag 
once more floated over the garrison. 

On the mornii 
munication 

Military District of New Mexico,' a copy of which is herewith inclosed. He also sent a 
communication addressed to Colonel Steele, Confederate States Army, empowering m& 
to negotiate an exchange for Captain McCleave and the men who were made prisoners 
with him. 

Soon after the express from Colonel Chivington arrived a party of men were seen 
approaching from the direction of Mesilla ; one of them proved to be Captain McCleave 
on his way to Fort Craig, bringing with him a proposition from Colonel Steele for an 
exchange for Captain Gardner, Confederate States Army. Having learned from the 
expressman just arrived that Captain Gardner died a few clays since, I at once sent Cap- 
tain Fritz, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, to Fort Fillmore with a request to 
Colonel Steele to name any other Captain General Canity had made prisoner in exchange 
for Captain McCleave. 



THE CALIFORNIA COLUMN. 61 

Also proposing an exchange for the men taken with him, as well as an exchange for 
onr expressman, Jones, and a i\Ir. John Lemon, of Mesilla, who was extremely kind to 
Captain McCleave during his continemcnt, and who had horses ready saddled and hid 
out for Jones' escape ; he was ordered to be hung, and was taken out to a tree for that 
purpose, but after nanging a Mr. ]Marshall, who was taken out with him, his execution 
was postponed. Captain Fritz will probably be back to-night, when I will at once send 
Captain McCleave with a party of twenty-five men through to Tucson. It is not safe for 
a less number to travel that road on account of the Indians, and even then with the 
utmost caution. 

If it is the desire of the Colonel commanding to keep open commimication between 
Tucson and the Rio Grande, I would respectfully recommend that a company of infantry 
be stationed at Dragoon Springs and two companies at the Apache Pass. That corps 
would be far more effective against the Indians in the rugged mountains at the points 
above named than cavalry ; besides, horses could not be kept in flesh on the dry grass 
alone ; they would be utterlv useless in two weeks' riding. At this season of the year 
sufficient water and of a good quality can be obtained for two companies of infantry at 
the foot of the mountain four miles north of Ewell's Station. The spring is prominently 
marked by a large white spot on the mountain, which is directly over the water. 

The Rio Grancle has been unusually high this summer, almost the entire bottom 
between Fort Craig and Mesilla being still overflowed. It is impossible at this time to 
approach Mesilla on the west side of the river, a new channel havmg been washed out on 
that side of the town through which the largest portion of the water flows; besides, the 
bottom for a long distance is overflowed, and the soil being of a loose nature animals 
mire down in attempting to get through it. 

This morning I sent Captain McCleave with a small party to examine the San Diego 
Crossing, eighteen miles below here, to ascertain if the river can be forded at that point. 
The moment a crossing can be effected it is my intention, unless otherwise ordered by 
General Canby, to move on IMesilla and reoccupy Forts Fillmore and Bliss. When that 
is done that portion of the proclamation of the 'Colonel commanding will not only have 
been carried out, but the sacred soil of Texas will have been invaded. 

Captain McCleave reports Colonel Steele, with the rear of Sibley's brigade, making 
hurried exertions to get away from Texas. He is pressing every team, both mule and 
oxen, he can find into service, t'omi)elling the owners, generally Mexicans, to take Con- 
federate scrip therefor. The same mode is resorted to bv him in regard to provisions.' 

Captain Howland, Third United States Cavalry, in aclvance of his squadron, has just 
arrived. His command, one hundred men, will probably be here this evening. His 
horses are in shocking condition. Should we come up with Colonel Steele, and a mounted 
charge be made, it must be done by the squadron of my regiment. 

On the capture of Jones greatly increased exertions were made by Colonel Steele to get 
away. Mesilla was evacua'ted and Captain McCleave, who was at the time on parole to_ 
the limits of the town, was immediately confined under a strong guard. Mr. White, of 
the Pimos Villages, has been released, aiid will probably be here with the return of Captain 
Fritz. The horses are out grazing, under a strong guard, from daybreak until dark ; then 
tied up to the picket-line, with as much grass as they eat during the night. They are 
doimr very well, but have not vet recovered from the effects of the very distressing march 
from'Tucson here. Captain McCleave has just returned and reports the road down the 
river almost impassable for loaded wagons, and the river swimming at the crossing. 

July 9.— Sent Captain McCleave, with an escort and two wagons, to Fort Craig for sup- 
plies. The squadron of the Third United States Cavalry, one hundred strong, arrived 
and gone into quarters at this post. 

Captain Fritz returned this evening, having effected an exchange for Captain McCleave 
and the others named in my communication to Colonel Steele, a copy of which is here- 
with inclosed. , c- i 

Two Lieutenants were given in exchange for Captain McCleave, as Colonel Steele 
affected to know of no Captains of theirs for that purpose, although there are a number. 
His real object was to exchange for officers of his own regiment only. 

About six o'clock this evening an express arrived from Captain McCleave, informing 
me of an attack on his party as they were moving up the river, by the Navajoes,_sixty or 
seventy strong; that he had made camp, but was being surrounded by them. I immedi- 
atelv sent Captain Howland with Lieutenant Baldwin and t'nity men to his relief. 

I forward herewith, for the information of the Colonel commanding, all communications 
received or written by me since my arrival on the Rio Grande. 

I am, Lieutenant, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

E. E. EYRE, 
Lieutenant-Colonel, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, Commandint:. 

Lieutenant Ben. C. Cutler, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, Column from California, 
Tucson. Arizona. 

Headquarte&s First Cavalry, California Volunteers, 
Fort Thorn, Arizona, July 14, 1862. 

Lieutenant: I have the honor to report the arrival liere on yesterday of another 
express from General Canby, the second one alluded to in Colonel Chivington's communi- 
cation of the seventh instant. 



62 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 



I leave here to-morrow morning with my command for Mesilla. 

On examination I found the road from Here to Rough and Ready Station impracticable, 
and have determined to make a road to the San Diego Crossing,"and then pass the river 
on a raft, which I am now having made for that purpose, and which will be floated down 
to the crossing. The road on the east side of the river from San Diego to Mesilla is good. 
It is my determination, unless otherwise ordei-ed, to hoist the national colors over Me- 
silla, Fort Fillmore, and Fort Bliss, before the end of the present month. 

***************** 

I neglected in my report of the march to this place to give the names of the men killed 
by the'lndians at Apache Pass. Their names are Privates James F. Keith, Peter Malo- 
ney, and Albert Schmidt, of Company B, First Cavalry, California Volunteers. 
1 am, Lieutenant, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

E. E. EYRE, 

Lieutenant-Colonel, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, Commanding. 

Lieutenant Ben. C. Cutler, Acting Assistant Adjutant- General, Column from California, 
Tucson, Arizona. 



General Orders, ) Headquarters Column from California, 

No. 10. \ Tucson, Ariz., July 17, 1862. 

The Column from California will move to the Rio Grande in the following order : 

1. On the twentieth instant. Col. Joseph R. West, First Infantry, California Volun- 
teers, with Companies B, C, and K, of his regiment, and Company G, of the Fifth 
Infantry, California Volunteers. This command, at the Rio de Sanz, will receive the 
addition of Company E, of West's regiment, and Thompson's mounted howitzers. Maj. 
Theodore A. Coult, of the Fifth Infantry, California Volunteers, is assigned to duty with 
this command. Colonel West will take "forty thousand rounds of rifle-musket ammuni- 
tion. 

2. On the twenty-first instant a second command, consisting of Shinn's light battery, 
United States Third Artillery, and Companies A, First Infantr}% and B, Fifth Infantry, 
California Volunteers, will take up its line of march for the Rio Grande. This command 
will be supplied with all the artillery ammunition now here which pertains to Shinn's 
battery, and seventeen thousand rounds of ammunition for the rifle-musket. 

3. On the twenty-third instant a third command, under Lieut.-Col. Edwin A. Rigg, 
consisting of Comiaanies I, F, D, and H, First Infantry, California Volunteers, will start 
for the Rio Grande. This command will have twenty-eight thousand rounds of ammu- 
nition for the rifle-musket. 

4. Each of these commands will be supplied with subsistence for thirty days, with at 
least two tents for each company, and with a good supply of intrenching tools. Each 
command will also have one hospital tent (comiilete) and an ambulance for the sick and 
wounded, and will have a forge and material for shoeing horses and mules, and also a 
water-tank and a good su])i)ly of water-kegs. 

5. On the thirty-first instaiit a train of wagons laden with forty days' supplies of sub- 
sistence for the whole command hereby ordered forward, with the following ammunition, 
viz. : forty thousand rounds for the riAe-musket, thirty thousand rounds for the Sharps' 
carbine, and twenty thousand rounds for the navy size Colt's revolver, together with such 
other supplies of clothing, tents, tools, spare wagon timbers, leather, wagon grease, horse- 
shoes, mule shoes, horseshoe nails, stationery, etc., as maybe required, will leave Tucson 
for the Rio Grande, escorted by Companies A, Fifth InYantry, and A, First Cavalry, 
California Volunteers, each furnished with sixty days' rations. " This command will liave 
an ambulance, forge, and water-tank, and such other articles as may be required to render 
it efficient. 

6. Company D, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, will move from Tubac directly 
for the crossing of the San Pedro, where it will arrive on the twenty-second instant. 
From that point it will form the advance guard of the Column, and habitually, unless 
otherwise ordered, will march one day in front of West's command. 

7. Captain Cremony's Company B," of the Second Cavalry, California Volunteers, will 
march near the head of the Column to serve as flankers or as videttes, as occasion may 
require. 

8. The staff officers attached to these headquarters, except the Chief Commissary, will, 
until further orders, move with West's command. Surgeon Prentiss, First Cavalry, Cal- 
ifornia Volunteers, will move with the second command, and Surgeon Wooster, Fifth 
Infantry, California Volunteers, will move with Rigg's command. 

9. The Chief Quartermaster, Chief Commissary, and Medical Director are charged with 
giving the most perfect etficiency possible to all' matters pertaining to the public service 
in their several departments, keeping in mind the fact that this Column is presumed now 
to move forward prepared at all points to engage the enemy at any moment by night or 
by day. Let nothing be omitted or neglected which will give due effect to this idea, 
w^hether on the march or on the field of battle. 

10. That every soldier may move forward with a light, free step, now that we approach 
the enemy, he will no longer be required to carry his knapsack. 

11. This is the time when every soldier in this Column looks forward with a confident 



THE CALIFORNIA COLUMN. 63 

hone that he, too, will have the distinguished honor of striking a blow for the old stars 
and stripes ; when he, too. feels in his heart that he is the champion of the holiest cause 
that has ever vet nerved the arm of a patriot. 

The General commanding the Column desires that such a time shall be remembered by 
all, but more particularly by those who, from their guilt, have been so unfortunate as to be 
prisoners on such an occasion. He, therefore, orders that all soldiers under his command 
who may now be held in confinement shall be at once released. 

Bv command of Brigadier-General Carleton. 

BEN. C. CUTLER, 
First Lieutenant, First Infantry, Cal. Volunteers, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General. 



Headquarters First Cavalry, California Volunteers, 
Las Cruces, Ariz., August 30, 1862. 

Lieutenant : In compliance with verbal orders received from the General commanding 
the Column, I have the honor to report that immediately after my arrival on the Rio Grande, 
July 4, 1862, I sent a scouting party down the river as far as the San Diego Crossing, for 
the double purpose of ascertaining'if the enemy had jiickets within that distance of my 
camp, and also whether the high stage of water in the river rendered it impracticable to 
move my command that far, for the purpose of crossing, it being my intention to follow, 
and, if possible, overtake the retreating Texans under Colonel Steele. On their return 
they reported it impracticable to get to the crossing with wagons, but that the river was 
falling fast, and that in a short time, say one week, 1 would be able to accomplish my 
purpose of moving on Fort Fillmore, where a portion of the Texans were then quartered. 
I, therefore, determined to remain at Fort Thorn for a short time longer, to recruit the 
men and animals and to receive reinforcements from Fort Craig, which I had asked for 
from Cow SpriIl^s, having sent an express from that point on the twenty-eightli of .luiu'. 
On the eighth ultimo Captain Howland, Third United States Cavalry, with one hundred 
men, arrived at Fort Thorn, and reported to me for duty. I was now still more anxious 
to pursue the enemy, being confident of my ability to successfully cope with his disorgan- 
ized and disheartened troops, although they outnumbered me more than two to one. On 
the morning of the tenth ultimo I received a communication from Colonel Chivington, 
commanding Southern Military District of New Mexico, of which the following is an 
extract : 

"You will do all you can to learn the enemy's strength, position, and purpose ; but Gen- 
eral Canby does not design an advance from where you are until he can go in force. I 
am under orders to advance to Santa Barbara or thereabouts with sixteen companies of 
infantry and a battery of four six-pounder guns and two twenty-four-pounder howitzers, 
and anadditional c;^ivalry force to support the advance of General Carleton, and to coop- 
erate with tiie forces under him in the reoccupation of the Valley of the Mesilla." 

Although this was not a positive order to remain where I was, yet it intimated so clearly 
the desire of the District Commander to lead the advance on Mesilla and Fort Fillmore, 
that I felt exceedingly embarrassed as to whether I would be authorized in leaving Fort 
Thorn until the arrival there of Colonel Chivington ; but on consultation with Captains 
Howland, Tilford, and Fritz, I determined, unless more positively ordered to remain, to 
move down to the San Diego Crossing as soon as the water would permit. Accordingly, 
on the thirteenth ultimo, I sent AVagonmaster Black with a party to the crossing to ascer- 
tain if it was yet practicable to get the train of thirteen wagons to that point. On his 
return the same day he reported favorably, and on the fifteenth ultimo 1 left with mj' 
command and arrived at the crossing on the sixteenth, a distance of eighteen miles. On the 
seventeenth ultimo I had succeeded in crossing successfully my command in a small boat 
which I caused to be made for that purpose before leaving Fort'Tliorn. On the nineteenth 
ultimo I received from Lieut. F. Van Vleet, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, the fol- 
lowing communication : 

"I am instructed by the Colonel commanding the district to inform you that your 
troops will not ci-oss the river until further orders." 

This was from Colonel Howe, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General, he then bein^ in 
command of the Southern Military District of New Mexico; but having crossed the river 
before 'its receipt, and having received supplies from Fort Craig, I determined to push on 
to Roblaro or Dona Ana and there await his further orders, and so wrote him. But on 
my arrival at the latter place I found neither forage nor grazing for the animals, and 
pushed on to Las Cruces, where quarters were found for the command in unoccupied 
nouses belonging to notorious Secessionists. 

On my arrival at Las Cruces I at once made inquiry as to the whereabouts of the Texans, 
and learned from reliable authority that a portion of them were yet at Franklin, Tex.; 
that they were collecting at that point a large amount of Government property, which 
had been bv them secreted at different places on their march up the river, and that they 
designed selling it to citizens of El Paso, Mexico. This property I could have undoubtedly 
taken, and in all probabilitv have captured the Texans then at Franklin, had I at once 
pushed on to that point ; but the strong intimation not to leave Fort Thorn which I 
received from Colonel Chivington, and the positive order not to cross the river which 1 
received from Colonel Howe, and my letter to him that I would await his further orders 
at Las Cruces, compelled me to remain at the latter place. Indeed, by moving farther 
down the river I would have run counter to the expressed wishes of the district com- 



64 RECOED OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

manders of the Southern Military District of New Mexico, if not against their positive 
orders. On the twenty-eighth viltimo 1 received a positive oi'der from Colonel Howe not 
to leave Las Cruces until further orders. Subsequently, while accompanying the General 
commanding on his march to Fort Quitman, I learned that Colonel Steele greatly feared 
he would be overtaken by the California troops, and in his hurried retreat burned' a num- 
ber of his wagons and destroyed a large amount of ammunition. I also learned that so 
much were his men disheartened and so thoroughly disorganized that, had thev been 
attacked by even a small force, they would have at once surrendered. Certain it is that 
an opportunity would have been given them to do so had it not been for the orders received 
from Fort Craig, for I should certainly have followed, and as certainly overtaken them 
before they left the river at Fort Quitman. 

I am, Lieutenant, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

E. E. EYRE, 

Lieutenant-Colonel, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, Commanding. 

Lieut. B. C. CuTLEB, Acting Assistant Adjutant- General, Column from California, Franklin, 
Tex. 

Official : 

BEN. C. CUTLER, 

First Lieutenant, California Volunteers, Acting Assistant Adjutant-General. 

Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, October 22, 1862. 
Official: 

RICHARD C. DRUM, 
Assistant Adjutant-General. 



Headquarters Column from California, 
Santa Fe, N. Mex., September 20, 1862. 

To Lieut. -Col. Richard C. Drum, Assistant Adjiitant-General U. S. Army, San Francisco, Cal.: 

Colonel: I wrote to you on the twenty-second day of July informing you of all the 
important events connected with the Column from California, from June eighteenth to 
that date. I then inclosed copies of General Orders Nos. 10 and 11 from these head- 
quarters, which prescribed the manner in which the Column should march across the 
desert from Tucson to the Rio Grande. I left Tucson myself on the twentv-third of 
July, passed Colonel West with most of the troops, encamped on the San Pedro on the 
twenty-fourth, and led the advance of the Column from that point to Las Cruces, New 
Mexico, with one company of infantry and two of cavalry. From the hostile attitude of 
the Chi-ri-ca-hui, I found "it indispensably necessary to establish a post in what is known 
as Apache Pass; it is known as Fort Bowie, and garrisoned by one hundred rank and 
file of the Fifth Infantrj', California Volunteers, and thirteen rank and file of Company 
A, First Cavalry, California Volunteers; this post commands the water in that pass. 
Around this water the Indians have been in the habit of lying in ambush, and shooting 
the troops and travelers as they came to drink. In this way they have killed three of 
Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre's command, and in attempting to keep Captain Roberts' com- 
pany, First Infantry,' California Volunteers, away from the spring a fight ensued, in 
which Captain Roberts had two men killed and two wounded. Captain Roberts reports 
that the Indians lost ten killed. In this afi'air the men of Captain Roberts' company are 
reported as behaving with great gallantry. 

Two miles beyond Apache Pass I found the remains of nine white men, who had been 
murdered by tbe Indians. They were a party traveling from the Pino Alto Mines to 
California; one of them had been burned at the stake. We saw the charred bones, and 
the burnt ends of the rope by which he had been tied. The remains of seven of these 
men were buried on that spot. From the Rio de Sauz to Ojo de la Vaca there was a 
great dearth of water. At the latter place I addressed a letter to General Canby, giving 
liim all the elements going to make up the Column, the object of its march, and the 
wishes of General Wright. A copy of that letter is herewith inclosed, marked A. 
Having been informed that a large number of men, women, and children were in a desti- 
tute and starving condition at the Pino Alto Mines, forty odd miles northeastward from 
the Ojo de la Vaca, I directed Colonel West to furnish them with some subsistence stores 
as a gratuity. (See letter of instructions to Colonel West, marked B, and Captain Shir- 
land's report on the starving condition of these i)eople, marked C.) I arrived on the Rio 
Grande im the seventh day of August, at a point three miles above Fort Thorn, and 
immediately communicated with General Canl)y by letter, marked D. On the ninth of 
August I passed the Rio Grande, at the San Diego" Crossing, eighteen miles below Fort 
Thorn. "Tlie river was still very high and very rapid, bitt the men stripped ofi" their 
clothes, and dragged the wagons through by main force ; the baggage, subsistence stores, 
ammunition, etc., were crossed in two small leaky boats. At this point we built a larger 
and better boat for the use of the detachment of the Column still to come itp. 

The head of the Column arrived at Las Cruces on the tenth day of August. Here I 
found the advance guard, under Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre, First Cavalry, California Vol- 



THE CALIFORNIA COLUMN. 65 

unteers, strengthened by four companies of the United States Fifth Infantry, which had 
been sent down from Fort Craig. Tm^o companies of regular cavalry had also been sent 
down to reinforce Colonel Eyre, but these had been recalled, and had started back to 
Fort Craig on the ninth of August. Unfortunately Colonel Eyre had been forbidden by 
Colonel Cliivington and Colonel Howe to proceed in the direction of Texas below Las 
Cruces, otherwise 1 believe he would have captured the whole of Steele's force of Confed- 
erate troops. (See his report on this subject, marked E.) The energy, enterprise, and 
resources of Colonel Eyre, as exhibited in his rapid march from Tucson to the Rio Grande, 
his crossing of that river, and his unlooked-for presence directly upon the heels of the 
retreating Rebels, cannot Ije too highly ajipreciated. He exhibited some of tlie finest 
qualities of a soldier, and had he not been fettered by orders from higher authority than 
himself, he would without doubt have achieved advantages over the enemy creditable to 
himself and to the Column from California. But for his timely arrival upon the Rio 
Grande, Las Cruces and Mesilla would both have been laid in ashes by the enemy. Ham- 
pered as he was by orders, he nevertheless managed to hoist the stars and stripes upon 
Fort Thorn, Fort Fillmore, Mesilla, and Fort Bliss, in Texas. On the eleventh of August 
General Canby wrote me a very handsome letter, in which he liberally offered to furnish 
the Column with all the supjilies it might need, together with $30,000 subsistence funds. 
General Wright will be gratified to read it. It is marked F. It will be seen by tliat 
letter that the medical supplies and ordnance stores in the Department of New Mexico 
are so abundant as to preclude the necessity of any more of these stores being purchased 
or shipped in the Department of the Pacific for'any of the troops east of Fort Yuma 
belonging to the Column from California. 

On the eleventh of August (xeneral Canby sent to me another communication, in which 
he treats of the impracticability of an invasion of Texas from this direction, and in which 
he speaks of removing the regular troops from New Mexico and of receiving other rein- 
forcements from California. As the views set forth seem to be of great A^alue, 1 submit it 
for the perusal of General Wright. It is marked G. On the twelfth of August General 
Canby wrote still another letter, in which he authorized me to use my own judgment in 
regard to the disposition of troops in Arizona and southern New Mexico. It is marked 
H. My letter to General Canby, dated August fifteenth, together with General Orders 
Nos. 14 and 15, herewith inclosed, will inform (icneral Wright of the distribution of the 
troops along the Rio Grande. These communications are marked I. On the sixteenth 
of August I started with three companies of cavalry for Fort Bliss, in Texas. At the 
town of Franklin, opposite El Paso, I found a surgeon of the Confederate Army and 
twenty-five sick and disabled Confederate soldiers, whom I made yirisoners of war by 
order of General Canby. I also found that a large amount of hospital stores and Quar- 
termaster's property, which once had belonged to the LTnited States, was in store-rooms 
connected with the Custom House at El Paso, in Mexico. These stores I managed to 
recover. There were twelve wagon loads of them. I sent them to the depot which I had 
established at Mesilla. I then proceeded nearly one hundred miles farther down the 
valley of the Rio Grande into Texas. The object of my march was to restore confidence 
to the people. They had been taught by the Texans that we were coming amongst them 
as marauders and as robbers. When they found we treated them kindly, and paid them 
a fair price for all the supplies we required, they rejoiced to find, as they came under the 
old flag once more, that they could now have protection and be treated justly ; the abhor- 
rence tliey expressed of the "Confederate troops and of the rebellion convinced me that 
their loyalty to the United States is now beyond question. 

On the twenty-second of August the troops of tlie Column from California hoisted the 
stars and strijie's over Fort Quitman. This was done by Captain John C. Cremony, with 
his company, B, Second Cavalrv, California Volunteers. On the same day Captain Shir- 
land, First Cavalry, California volunteers, was directed to proceed to Fort Davis, one 
hundred and forty miles still farther into Texas, and hoist the national colors over that 
post. (See General Orders No. 16, herewith inclosed, marked K.) How well Captain 
Shiiiand performed this duty, and how gallantly he and liis men behaved in a light with 
the Indians, will be seen by his report, a copy of which is herewith inclosed, marked L. 
Captain Roberts' company, which whipped the Indians in Apache Pass, is from Sacra- 
mento. Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre, who led my advance guard to the Rio Grande and 
hoisted the colors over Forts Thorn, Fillmore, Bliss, and Mesilla, is from Sacramento ; 
and so is Captain Shirland, who hoisted the stars and stripes two hundred and forty 
miles farther into the State of Texas, and also whipped the Indians in that neighbor- 
hood. This speaks nobly for the men from that city. I inclose a telegraphic communi- 
cation from General Canby to the Adjutant-General of the Army, dated August tenth, in 
which he requests that a regiment more of infantry and five companies of cavalrj^ be sent 
into the Department of New Mexico from California, so as to relieve the regular troojis 
now here. It is marked M. On the twenty-first of August I was instructed to arrange 
the affairs of the District of Arizona, so as to turn over that district to the officer next in 
rank to myself and hold myself in readiness to repair to the Head(iuarters Department 
of New Mexico. I also received Special Orders No. 148, from the headciuartcrs of that 
department, directing me to send an officer as bearer of dispatches to the commander 
of the Department of the Pacific. Copies of these documents are herewith inclosed, 
marked N. 

On the second of September I received Special Orders No. 123, marked 0, directing me 
to relieve Brigadier-General Canby in the command of the Department of New Mexico. 
Previous to this order I had published General Orders No. 17, which posted a comjiany of 
infantry at Franklin, Tex., and another at Hart's Mills, Tex. It is herewith inclosed, 



66 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

marked P. On the first day of September I put the Texan prisoners of war whom 1 
found at Franklin on theirparole, and sent them on their way to San Antonio, Tex., 
escorted by Com])any D, First Cavalry, California Volunteers. (See my letter to the com- 
manding officer of the Confederate forces, San Antonio, Tex., marked Q.) I then re- 
turned to Las Cruces, N. Mex., where I published General Orders No. 20, marked R, 
regulating the affairs of the District of Arizona, and transferring the command of that 
district to Colonel Joseph R. West, First Infantry, California Volunteers. I still retain 
the command of the Column from California, and shall cause all the reports which you 
require in your letter to me, dated at San Francisco, May 30, 1862, to be sent to the Head- 
quarters Department of the Pacific until I am otherwise ordered by competent authority. 
I then proceeded to Santa Fe, arriving here on the sixteenth. General Canby rehnquished 
the command of the Department of New Mexico on the eighteenth instant. (See General 
Orders No. 83, marked S.) I assumed command of the department on the same day. 
(See General Orders No. 84, marked T.) Some additional changes have been made of the 
troops pertaining to the Column from California, which are indicated in a letter to Colonel 



an order directing Lieutenant-Colonel Edward E. Eyre, First Cavalrj^, California Volun- 
teers, to bear these dispatches to the Headquarters Department of the Pacific; it is 
marked Z. 

The various communications will give General Wright a pretty good idea of the opera- 
tions of the troops comprising the Column from California from'July twenty-second of 
this year to the present time. I find that the supply of provisions in this department is 
adequate to the wants of all the troops from California now serving here, and, therefore, 
respectfully recommend that no more subsistence stores be purchased for the Column 
from California until further advices on this subject. I propose to transport from Fort 
Yvima to Tucson, during the cool weather of the fall and winter, a large quantity of the 
subsistence stores now in excess at the former post, so as to provide for the contingency 
of the other troops being ordered to New Mexico from California, to provide for the wants 
of the troops already stationed in Arizona, and to form a magazine in case of any 
reverses here which may lead to the destruction of our present stores or oblige the Cali- 
fornia or other troo]")s"to retire towards the Pacific. When these supplies have been 
accumulated at Tucson by a train now employed for that purpose, that train will l>e 
requirecl for service in thisclepartment; meantime, it can be used as transportation from 
Fort Yuma to the Rio Grande for any troops which General Wright may order from the 
Department of the Pacific into Arizona or New Mexico. The southern overland mail 
route has been opened, and the militarv posts in Arizona and southern New Mexico and 
northwestern Texas have been reoccupied by troops composing the Column from Califur- 
nia. Thus far the instructions of the General commanding the Department of the Pacific 
have been carried out. It was no fault of the troops from California that the Confederate 
forces fled before them. It is but just to say that their having thus fled is mainly to he 
attributed to the gallantry of the troops under General Canby's command. That they 
were hurried in their flight by the timely arrival of the advance guard of the Column 
from California, under Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre, there cannot be a doubt. 

The march across the desert from the Pacific to the Rio Grande by the Column from 
California was not acconii>lished without immense toil and great hardships, nor without 
many privations and nuuh yutfering from heat and want of water. The amount of labor 
performed by Colonel Joseph R. West, the second in command, was immense, and of the 
greatest practical importance. Much of our success was dependent on his energy, i^erse- 
verance, cheerfulness, and high soldierly qualities. I cannot too strongly recommend 
that this officer be promoted to the grade of Brigadier-General of Volunteers, as a reward 
for these services, and particularly as he now commands the most important district in 
this department. I trust that General Wright will urge the necessity of this advancement 
of Colonel West, and set forth to the General-in-Chief his eminent fitness for the office of 
Brigadier-General. This will promote Lieutenant-Colonel Rigg, which will be a reward for 
his important services as commanding officer at Fort Yuma ciuring the past winter, and 
for his efficient labors in the Column while crossing the Great Desert. I regard Colonel 
Rigg as one of the finest soldiers in the Column from California. Those who know the 
troops from California as I know them, will consider this a high compliment. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Edward E. Eyre, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, deserves a regiment. The 
zeal he has manifested in the discharge of his duties, and the alacrity and cheerfulness 
he has always shown when called upon for any hazardous enterprise, distinguish him as 
one eminently fitted for the profession of arms. If five companies more of cavalry are 
to be sent frohi California, as requested by General Canbv, 1 trust they will be added to 
the five which now compose the First Cavalry, California "Volunteers, and that Lieutenant- 
Colonel Eyre will be commissioned as full Colonel. The services of Major Coult, Fifth 
Infantry, California Volunteers; of Major Fergusson, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, 
and of Major McMullen, First Infantry, California Volunteers, have been most arduous, 
and are deserving a reward. 

The officers and men of the Second Cavalry, California Volunteers, and of the Fifth 
Infantry, California Volunteers, shared and shared alike in all the privations and toil 
encountered by the First Infantry and First Cavalry, California Volunteers. As soldiers 
in the highest acceptation of that word they were all equally subordinate, patient, ener- 
getic, and patriotic. If I should select the names of some of them to be rewarded for 
these high qualities, it would be an invidious distinction. Capt. John B. Shinn and First 



THE CALIFORNIA COLUMN. 67 

Lieut. Franklin Harwood, of the Third Artillery, for their incessant toil by night and by 
day to bring the battery of light artillery which is attached to the Column from Califor- 
nia through the Yuma and Gila Deserts, should each receive the compliment of a brevet; 
Captain Shinn to be breveted as Major, and First Lieutenant Harwood as Captain. 
Unless these youn^ men are rewarded bv a compliment of this kind, I shall always feel 
that the passage of a battery of light artillery, always in fighting condition, over such an 
inhospitable waste in the midst of the heats of summer, is a matter of such trivial 
importance in the profession of arms as not to be worthy of notice. Theirs was the first 
battery that ever crossed the desert. I am sure that he who crosses the next one will be 
considered an accomplished soldier. I trust that General Wright will call the attention 
of the General-in-Chief to the credit which is eminently due these young gentlemen for 
their services in this Column. I have already asked for promotion for my Adjutant-Gen- 
eral, Lieut. Benjamin C. Cutler, for my Medical Director, Surgeon James M. McXulty, 
and for my Regimental Quartermaster, First Lieut. La Fayette Hammond, all of the 
First Infantry, California Volunteers. Their merits are too well known at the Headquar- 
ters Department of the Pacific, to need any further words of commendation for myself. 

In conclusion, I beg to thank General Wright for the confidence he always reposed in 
me. In carrying out his orders and instructions I have endeavored to do my best, yet, 
as it was a new and very extended field of operations, mv judgment about what was best 
to be done under emergencies as they arose, was doubtless not always of the soundest 
character, yet I feel that General Wright has kindly overlooked all imperfections of this 
nature and saved me the pain of many rebukes which no doubt I have deserved. For 
this I feel very grateful. The march of the Column from California across the Great Desert 
in the summer months, in the driest season that has been known for thirty years, is a 
military achievement creditable to the soldiers of the American Army. But it would 
not be just to attribute the success of this march to any ability on my part. That suc- 
cess was gained only by the high physical and moral energies of tha't peculiar class of 
officers and men wiio compose the Column from California. With any other troops, I 
am sure 1 should have failed. 1 send you a set of colors which have been borne by this 
Column. They were hoisted by Colonel West on Forts Breckenridge and Buchanan, and 
over Tucson, Ariz. ; bv Colonel Eyre over Forts Thorn, Fillmore, and over Mesilla, N. 
Mex., and over Fort filiss, in Texas. They were hoisted by Captain Cremony over Fort 
Quitman, and by Captain Shirland over Fort Davis, in Texas, and thus again'have those 
places been consecrated to our beloved country. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

JAMES H. CARLETON, 
Brigadier-General, U. S. Army, Commanding. 

Headquarters Department of the Pacific, 
San Francisco, Cal., October 22, 1862. 
Official : 

RICHARD C. DRUM, 
Assistant Adjutant-General. 



68 RECORD OP CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 



THE FIRST REGIMENT OF CAVALRY. 



This regiment was organized under the first call of the President, on 
the State of California, for troops to assist in suppressing rebellion, the 
first man having been enlisted in it on the tenth of August, 1861. The 
name of this man was Charles S. Thompson, who enlisted in Comjoany 
B, at Folsom, on above mentioned date. 

The organization first consisted of a battalion of five companies, which 
were assembled in a camp near Lake Merritt, Oakland, called " Camp 
Merchant," where the companies were mustered into the United States 
service on various dates, as shown heretofore, between August fifteenth 
and October 31, 1861. 

The first commanding officer was Lieutenant-Colonel Benjamin F. 
Davis, an officer of the regular army, having been admitted to the U. S. 
Military Academy in 1850, from the State of Mississippi. He was made 
Brevet Second Lieutenant, Fifth Infantry, July 1, 1854; Second Lieu- 
tenant, First Dragoons, third of March, 1855; First Lieutenant, ninth 
of January, 1860, and Captain, July 30, 1861. His regiment became 
the First Cavalry August 3, 1861. He was commissioned Lieutenant- 
Colonel, First California Cavalry, August 19, 1861, and resigned as such 
November 1, 1861, returning to duty in his old regiment. Was breveted 
Major, fifteenth of September, 1862, for meritorious service at Harper's 
Ferry, and was killed at the battle of Beverly Ford, Va., June 9, 1863. 
He was succeeded in command by Major Edward E. Eyre, who was imme- 
diately promoted to be Lieutenant-Colonel, and commanded the regiment 
until his resignation was accepted, November 30, 1862. During the 
year 1863, the battalion was made a full regiment of twelve companies, 
and Major David Fergusson was promoted to be its Colonel. He was 
dismissed from the service November 6, 1863, by War Department Special 
Orders No. 323. He commanded the regiment during the month of 
July, 1862, as Major only. November 6, 1863, Oscar M. Brown was 
promoted to the Colonelcy, and commanded until his resignation was 
accepted, December 31, 1865. During the balance of the time, until the 
regiment was finally mustered out, it was commanded by Lieutenant- 
Colonel Clarence E. Bennett and Major and Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel 
William McCleave. McCleave was commissioned Colonel of the regi- 
ment, but was never mustered as such, owing to the fact that the regi- 
ment had fallen below the minimum required by law. After the battalion 
was organized it was sent to the southern part of the State, three com- 
panies being stationed at Camp Latham, near Los Angeles, and two at 
Camp Carleton, near San Bernardino. The battalion remained in the 
southern part of the State until the spring of 1862, when it became part 
of the "California Column," and formed the advance of that Column 
during the march to New Mexico and Texas. 

The general history of the regiment during the march of the Califor- 
nia Column being identical with the history of that expedition, which 
has been heretofore published, will not be repeated in this place. The 
five companies first organized were mustered out August 31,1864, the 
terms of service of most of the men having expired. Two new com- 



FIRST REGIMENT OF CAVALRY. 69 

panies, B and C, were organized in New Mexico, by consolidation of the 
few men whose terms had not expired, and by new enlistments, and two 
new companies were enlisted in California, A and E, which, upon the 
completion of their organization, Avere sent to Arizona. 

The following events in the history of the regiment are gleaned from 
various reports, orders, letters, and muster rolls: 

Company A left Camp Carleton, San Bernardino County, Cal., March 
1, 1862. Arrived at Stanwix Rancho, A. T., March 16, 1862. Distance, 
three hundred and sixty miles. Private Semmilrogge (patrol) wounded 
March 29, 1862, six miles above Stanwix Rancho, on the Gila River. 
Left Stanwix Rancho, April 8, 1862. Arrived at Picacho Pass, A. T., 
April 15, 1862. Distance, one hundred and fifty-five miles. Detachment 
of company had an engagement with Rebels at Picacho Pass, April 15, 
1862, in which Lieutenant Barrett, First Regiment Cavalry, California 
Volunteers, and Private George Johnson, Company A, First Cavalry, 
California Volunteers, were killed, and Corporal James Botsford, Com- 
pany A, was wounded. Left Picacho Pass, A. T., April sixteenth, and 
arrived at Pimos Villages, A. T., April 24, 1862, Left Pimos Villages, 
April twenty-fourth. Arrived at Kenyon Station, April 26, 1862. Laid 
over one day. Returned to Pimos Villages, April 29, 1862. Distance, 
one hundred and thirty-two miles. 

The fight described above was with an advance party of Colonel Bay- 
lor's Texan Rangers, under Captain Hunter. The companies of the 
First Cavalry were then assembled at Pimos Villages, where an earth- 
work was thrown up and named Fort Barrett, in honor of the young 
Lieutenant who was killed in the fight at Picacho. They remained 
there until the twenty-fourth of May, when Lieutenant-Colonel Eyre 
was ordered to reoccupy old Fort Breckenridge, near the confluence of 
the Gila and San Pedro Rivers, Arizona, the name of which was changed 
to Fort Stanford, in honor of the Governor of California. The regiment 
having arrived on the Rio Grande, and the Confederate troops having 
been driven out of the country, the companies were stationed at various 
posts and camps, employed in scouting after Indians, etc. 

Report of an expedition to Fort Davis, Texas: 

Camp on Rio Grande, September 2, 1862. 

Lieutenant: I have the honor to state that, pursuant to instructions received from 
General James H. Carleton, commanding Column from California, I left this camp at 
3 o'clock p. M., August twenty-third, en route to Fort Davis; encamped at 8 o'clock the 
same evening, havmg marched fifteen miles. Started at daybreak of the twenty-fourth 
and arrived at Eagle Springs at 9:30 a. m. — seventeen miles. Found the springs filled 
with rubbish and carrion ; by cleaning them out, succeeded in obtaining water for men 
and animals. There being nb grass in the vicinity, I left the springs at 4 p. m. Marched 
about five miles, and made a dry camp — grass abundant and good. Started at day- 
break and marched twenty miles to Van Horn's Wells; found these wells entirely filled 
vip. Cleaned out one of t"liem, but found it impossible to obtain sufficient water "for the 
men. Many of the horses being unable to proceed further, I thought it best to go on 
from here with twenty men and picked liorses, taking the ambulance with me. Accord- 
ingly I directed Lieutenant Haden to retrace his steps to Eagle Springs with the remain- 
der of the detachment, to clean out the springs thoroughly and remain there eight days, 
unless he received other orders from me. If, at the expiration of eight days, I should not 
have returned or sent back an express, I directed him to return to the river ancl wait for 
me there two days, and then proceed up the river and report to General Carleton. I left 
Van Horn's Wells at about 4 o'clock p. m. and arrived at "Dead Man's Hole" at altout 
2 a. m. Found sulficient water there for the animals, but not enough for a company — 
distance, thirty-five miles. Started at 6:30 a. m. and arrived at Barrel Springs at 3 p. 'm., 
having halted on the road to graze the animals. Found water enough at these springs 
for one company. Remained here that night and on the next afternoon sent forward 
Corporal Bartlett, with one private and the Mexican guide, to find out tlie condition of 
atfairs at Fort Davis, distant eighteen miles. 

"They returned about noon the next day, having performed their duty in such a manner 



70 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

that if the fort had been occupied by the Confederate States troops their (Corporal 
Bartlett and party's) presence could not have been discovered. They reported the fort 
unoccupied, and I, thinking it best not to send back for the company, on account of the 
scarcity of water, proceeded to the fort. I found it entirely deserted, but in one of the 
buildings of the Overland Mail Company I found the dead body of a man lying on the 
floor. He had been shot through the body with a bullet, and had an arrow wound on 
the head and one on the arm. From the appearance of the room I think it had been 
used by the Confederate troops as a hospital, and this man left there sick and afterwards 
killed bv the Indians. I had the body buried. The fort appears to have been garrisoned 
by the Confederate States troops since their first appearance in the country, by at least a 
portion of one company. It also seemed to have been used as a rendezvous for sick 
soldiers, but they had all left with the last detachment for San Antonio. The following 
is a description of the buildings at the fort : 

P'ive company quarters, about 80 by 25 feet, one story high, built of stone, thatched 
roof. Four of these buildings are in fair condition ; the roof, doors, and windows of one 
have been burned. 

One guard-hovise, about 80 by 25 feet ; building stone; roof, doors, and windows burned. 

One Quartermaster store-house, about 100 by 20 feet, built of stone; roof, doors, and 
windows entirely destroyed ; surrounded by several small buildings, use not known. 

One wooden or slab building, 30 by 16 feet, thatched roof, used as an Adjutant's office. 

One wooden building, 36 by 27, with kitchen and several small outbuildmgs, supposed 
to have been the commanding officer's quarters. On this building the flag was hoisted, 
and kept up during one day. 

One wooden building, 48 by 22 feet, with the kitchen and outhouses attached, supposed 
to have been officers' quarters. 

One wooden building, 22 by 12 feet, with one small outbuilding, 10 by 14. 

One wooden building, 36 by 18. 

One building, 14 by 12. 

One slab building, 40 by 15 feet. 

One slab building, 50 by 14 feet. 

One slab building, 20 by 12 feet. 

One slab building, 20 by 12 feet. 

One slab building, 30 by 15 feet. 

One slab outhouse, 10 by 12 feet. 

Seven small slab houses. 

One slab stable, 50 by 14. 

One stone and mud house. 

Three small slab buildings. 

These are estimated measurements, as I had no other means of doing. One overland 
mail station, consisting of houses, store-houses, shop, stables, saddlery, granary, etc. 

One adobe building, formerly used as a store. Many of the doors and windows have 
been destroyed. Some seem to have been hauled off, others burned. One wagon stands 
loaded with lumber. 

I have heard as report, in fact, that the entire fort was sold by Confederate States offi- 
cers to some party at Del Norte, Mexico. Property consists of some iron in Quarter- 
master's store-house, some one hundred horseshoes, two old citizen wagons, several 
wagons and cart-wheels, empty barrels, several chains, many hospital bedsteads, but all 
broken or in a dilapidated conciition. I started from the fort on my return at daylight 
on the thirtieth and marched to Dead Man's Hole, watered the animals, and made a dry 
camp in the prairie. Left camp at 9 a. m. and marched about ten miles, when an Indian 
made his appearance with a white flag, followed by five others, all mounted. I tried to 
hold a talk with them, but they seemed unwilling to have anything to say, they being 
followed by twenty-five or thirty more mounted men, and still farther behind by a large 
party on foot ; and it being evident that their only intention was to gain time and delay 
us until they could surround us, 1 ordered the men to fire upon them. A fight immedi- 
ately ensued, they making every effort to surround us, coming towards us in every direc- 
tion, a large proportion of them mounted. 

Wishing to get rid of the footmen, I made a running fight of it, expecting the mounted 
men to follow, which thev did for a short distance, but finding it too hot for them they 
returned. They left four'men dead on the field, two of them the leaders, respectively, of 
the mounted and foot men. I have good reason to believe that at least twenty were 
wounded. I had two men wounded, one slightly and one painfully, by a pistol oall in 
the shoulder. I had also one horse wounded. I then came on to Eagle Springs, where 
I arrived at 11 o'clock p. m., watered all my animals, and found that Lieutenant Haden, 
with the remainder of the command, had left for the river several days before. Cami»ed 
for the remainder of the night, and on the next day proceeded to the river, arriving 
there about 5 o'clock p. m., and found Lieutenant Haden with the remainder of the 
command, he stating that he could not find sufficient water at Eagle Springs for the use 
of the animals. I omitted in the foregoing report to state that about ten miles from Van 
Horn's Wells 1 met two Mexicans coming this way. I arrested them and brought tbem 
to this camp, where I released them, and they went on up the river, and will report to 
General Carleton in person. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

E. D. SHIRLAND, 
Captain Company C, First Cavalry, California Volunteers. 

Lieut. B. C. Cutler, Acting Assist. Adjt.-Gen., Cohirmi from California, Franklin, Tex. 



FIRST REGIMENT OF CAVALRY. 71 

On the eleventh of October, 1862, General Carleton ordered an expe- 
dition consisting of Companies A and D, First California Cavalry, to 
Dog Cailon, N. M., against the Mescalero Apaches, to cooperate with an 
expedition under Colonel Christopher Carson (Kit Carson), who was 
ordered, with five companies of his regiment, First New Mexico Cav- 
alry, to reoccupy Fort Stanton, N. M. As a result of this expedition, 
the Mescalero Apaches were completely subdued, and four hundred of 
them were taken prisoners. 

January 12, 1863. — Company A left Las Cruces, N. M,, and arrived at 
Fort McLean, N. M., January nineteenth. On the twentieth Captain 
McCleave and twenty rank and file proceeded to Pinos Altos Mines, 
and attacked a party of Mangus Colorado's Apaches, killing eleven and 
wounding the chiefs wife. January twenty-seventh left Fort McLean 
for headwaters of Gila and Francisco Rivers, in accordance with Special 
Orders No. 5, District of Arizona. Returned to Fort McLean February 
fifth. On the ninth of February Captain McCleave and thirty men 
went on a scout to headwaters of Miembres River. Returned on four- 
teenth of February. On sixteenth started for new site of Fort West. 
Camped at Bonnevill's Depot, on Gila River, from eighteenth to twenty- 
fourth, when camp was moved to Fort West. Distance marched, five 
hundred and seven miles. 

January 17, 1863. — Captain E. D. Shirland, Company C, First Cali- 
fornia Cavalry, brought Mangus Colorado, an Apache chief, into Fort 
McLean a prisoner. On the morning of the eighteenth, in attempting to 
escape, Mangus was killed by the guard. On the afternoon of March 22, 
1863, the Gila Apaches made a descent upon the public herd, which was 
grazing near Fort West, N. M., and succeeded in running off some sixty 

head of horses. The Indians numbered . At 8 p. m. the gallant 

Major William McCleave, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, started 
in pursuit with a command consisting of Lieutenants French and Lat- 
timer. First California Cavalry, forty men of Company A, twenty-five 
men of Company B, and fourteen men of Company C, all of First Cav- 
alry. Major McCleave followed the trail of the Indians in a westerly 
direction about seventy miles, and down the Gila five miles, then across 
the divide to Rio Negro, where he arrived at 9 a. m. of the twenty-sixth, 
and then moved up the stream a short distance. Signs at this point 
indicated the close proximity of Indians and a rancheria. During 
twilight the command moved up the stream two miles and made camp. 
Thirty men, mounted on the most serviceable animals, under Lieutenant 
Lattimer, and thirty under Major McCleave, started in search of the 
rancheria, leaving Lieutenant French in charge of the camp. Leaving 
camp at 8 o'clock p. m., the command ascended a mountain on the west 
side of the stream, and traveled about twelve miles without meeting any 
success. Here the command rested from 1 o'clock until dawn of the 
twenty-seventh, it raining all the time. When light enough to see, 
Major McCleave discovered, from an elevated position, trees which indi- 
cated presence of water, and a horse grazing in the neighborhood also 
indicated that the rancheria was near by. Lieutenant Lattimer was 
ordered ahead with his command; discovered rancheria and gallantly 
charged upon it. Part of the dismounted men immediately commenced 
gathering in and guarding the horses to prevent the escape of the In- 
dians, while others were skirmishing and fighting on the bluffs. The 
fight lasted for twenty minutes, and resulted in the complete routing of 



72 RECOED OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

the Indians, the capture of all our own horses that could he found, and 
many Indian horses; the killing of twenty-five Indians, and the com- 
plete destruction of the rancheria, provisions, and all they possessed. 
Private Hall, of Company B, First California Cavalry, was wounded in 
the fight. The command then returned to camp, and soon after noon 
started on return trip by a route supposed to be more direct than the 
one by which the Indians were followed from the fort. This route led 
up a canon, from the sides of which the Indians attacked the rear guard 
of the command, wounding Lieutenant French, killing two horses and 
wounding one. As soon as the attack was made, the soldiers ascended 
the perpendicular walls of the canon by climbing one over the other. 
This was done amidst a shower of arrows. As soon as they reached the 
top the Indians fled in every direction. The superiority of the Califor- 
nians over the Apaches, at their own style of fighting, was shown in the 
case of Corporal Ellis, of Company A, who crawled to a rock, behind 
which was an Indian, and, giving a short cough, the Indian raised his 
head to discover his course, when a bullet from Ellis' rifle dashed 
through his brain. The Indians lost in this attack three killed. On 
the thirtieth provisions giving out, a Sergeant and five men were sent to 
the fort for a supply. Until their return the party subsisted on horse 
flesh. 

On the fourth of April the command reached the fort. On the fifth. 
Private Hall died from the wounds received in the fight. Indian loss, 
twenty-eight killed; troops, one. 

Copy of a letter to Captain Pishon, who was sent as an escort to 
Surveyor-General Clark to the newly discovered gold fields, near where 
the City of Prescott, Arizona, now stands: 

Headquaeters Department of New Mexico, 
Santa Fe, N. M., June 22, 1863. 

Capt. Nathaniel J. Pishon, Company D, First California Cavalry, Fort Craig, N. M. : 

Captain : I send you a map of New Mexico, on which I desire that you will trace your 
route to and from the new gold fields, in obedience to orders to go as an escort to Sur- 
veyor-General Clark. 

Ilave great care taken of j^our animals. When you arrive at the new diggings, I want 
each of your men to prospect and wash, and 1 want you to report the exact time they 
severally work, and the amount of gold each one obtains in return for his labor during 
that tirne. Much reliance will be placed upon these statistics. The jieople must not be 
deceived, nor inveigled into that distant country without knowing well what they may 
expect to find. 

If the country is as rich as represented— and of this I have no doubt — there will, on 
your return, be'a revolution in matters here which no man now can ever dream of. I 
liave written to the authorities at Washington that if the country is as rich as reported, 
on your return I shall send two companies of California troops to establish a post in the 
heart of the gold region. Your company may, perhaps, be one of them, so you will have 
an eye to the best location of a post for one company of infantrv and one of cavalry. 

In' returning by the Whipple route to Albuquerque, mark the countrv well for the 
whole way from the gold region. Take your best men with you, and tilings to wash 
with. Send me a few specimens for the War Department on your return. Wishing you 
good foi'tune, 

1 am, Captain, very respectfully your obedient servant, 

JAMES H. CARLETON, 
Brigadier-General Commanding. 

Company B marched from Fort West, New Mexico, June 11, 1863, en 
route for Fort Stanton, New Mexico; arrived June 29, 1863. Distance, 
two hundred and fifty-eight miles. 

Captain Fritz and twenty-five men of Company B started in pursuit 



FIRST REGIMENT OF CAVALRY. 73 

of Indians from Las Cruces, New Mexico, June 17, 1863. Proceeded to 
six miles above San Diego Mountains, and returned June 19, 1863. 
Distance, seventy miles. 

July 4, 1863. — Captain N. J. Pishon, Company D, First California 
Cavalry, with twenty-seven men of his company, pursued a party of 
eight Indians who had driven off one hundred and four Government 
mules from Fort Craig; overtook them a few miles from the fort and, 
killing four Indians, recovered the mules. Captain J. L. Barbey, who 
accompanied the command, was shot through the wrist by an arrow; 
Privates Jackson and Bancroft were also slightly wounded. 

July 12, 1863. — Captain A. H. French, Company A, First California 
Cavalry, with twenty-seven men of his company, attacked and routed, 
near Fort Thorn, a band of Apache Indians, supposed to number sixty 
warriors. Indian loss, ten killed and four horses captured. Sergeant 
Walsh and Farrier Burns were wounded. 

July 22, 1863. — Captain Emil Fritz, First California Cavalry, with a 
detachment of California and New Mexico cavalry, left Fort Stanton for 
the Rio Pecos to chastise a band of two hundred Indians who had 
attacked Lieutenant Marques of First New Mexico Infantry. After 
following the Indians for forty-five miles Captain Fritz came upon their 
camp, and captured two horses, six mules, and all the plunder of their 
camp; the Indians made their escape. 

Remarks on Return of Company A, First Cavalry, for August, 1863. — 
The company left Fort West, N. M., June 27, 1863, on a scout for the 
extermination of the Miembres River Apaches. On the afternoon of July 
fifth, in a skirmish with Apaches, Sergeant Walsh and Farrier Burns 
were wounded, and one horse killed. Traveled from July seventh to 
fourteenth after Indians. Returned to Fort Thorn on Rio Grande. On 
the nineteenth, started on another scout through the mountains in pur- 
suit of said Indians, over the wildest, most Vjroken kind of country. 
Distance traveled, four hundred and ninety miles. 

The company left the Cienega de Los Apaches on the first of August, 
and arrived at Fort Thorn. On the fourth and fifth, Captain French 
and Second Lieutenant Allyne took detachments of the company up and 
down the Rio Grande on a scout. Left Fort Thorn on the ninth, and 
arrived at the Rio Miembres on the evening of the tenth. The company, 
in different detachments, has been out on several scouts in different 
directions during the month. Distance traveled, two hundred and forty 
miles. 

January 14, 1864. — Sergeant Joseph Felmer, First Cavalry, California 
Volunteers, reports that he recovered seven head of cattle while in pur- 
suit of a party of Indians, and turned them over to Don Pablo, of La 
Joya, N. M. 

On the third of April, 1864, Captain French and twenty-five enlisted 
men of Company A, First California Cavalry, left San Elizario, Texas, 
on an expedition down the Rio Grande. On the fifteenth instant sur- 
prised a party of Texas Rebels, at Spencer's Ranch, opposite Presidio Del 
Norte, commanded by Captain Skillman, C. S. A., numbering ten in all. 
Captain Skillman and one man killed, two mortally wounded, two 
escaped across the river, one of them wounded, and four taken prisoners, 
with horses, arms, ammunition, and camp equipage of the whole party. 
The detachment arrived at San Elizario, Texas, April 24, 1864, after 



74 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

a hard march of four hundred and ninety-nine miles. No casualties in 
company. 

April 7, 1864. — Capt. James H. Whitlock, Fifth Infantry, California 
Volunteers, with a command of twenty-six enlisted men of Company 
F and twenty enlisted men of Company I, under Lieutenant Barkell, 
and ten enlisted men of Company C, First Cavalry, California Volun- 
teers, attacked about two hundred and fifty Indians near Mount Grey, 
or Sierra Bonita, Arizona, and after a spirited fight of over one hour 
routed the Indians, killing twenty-one of them, left on the ground, and 
wounding a large number. Forty-five head of horses and mules were 
captured from the Indians, and all their provisions and camp equipage 
destroyed. 

Ten enlisted men of Company C, First California Cavalry, with a 
detachment of infantry, left Camp Miembres, N. M., March 28, 1864, 
on a scout against the Apaches. Returned April twelfth, having destroyed 
a rancheria, killed twenty-one Indians, and taken forty head of horses 
and mules. 

Remarks on Return of Company A, First Cavalry, for May, 1864- — The 
company has been engaged during the month on scouts, patrol, and 
picket duty. On the nineteenth instant the men of the company on 
picket duty fell in with a party of twenty-six Texas Union refugees and 
deserters, who were in a state of exhaustion and starvation. On the 
twentieth instant Captain French, with thirteen privates and provisions, 
left the post for the relief of the Texan refugees and deserters, near 
Fort Quitman, and returned to the post on the twenty-fifth instant. 
Distance traveled by each horse in the company during the month, three 
hundred and fifty miles. 

During the month of May, 1864, an expedition, consisting of detach- 
ments of Company F, First California Cavalry, and Company K, Fifth 
California Infantry, under Lieutenant-Colonel Nelson H. Davis, Assist- 
ant Inspector-General, U. S. A., assisted by Captain Tidball, Fifth 
Infantry, and two commissioned officers and one hundred and two 
enlisted men, started from Fort Bowie, Arizona, on a scout after Indians. 
On the twenty-fifth they surprised a rancheria and killed one Indian. 
Later, the same day, killed one Indian and captured one. On the 
twenty-sixth came upon a rancheria, killed one Indian, and destroyed 
several acres of corn. On same day one woman and two children were 
captured. On the twenty-eighth captured five women and two children. 
On the twenty-ninth the command surprised a rancheria, killed thirty- 
six Indians, wounded four, and took two prisoners. Captured six hun- 
dred and sixty ($660) dollars in gold coin, one Sharp's carbine, one 
Colt's revolver, one shotgun, one saddle, one thousand pounds of mescal, 
and a lot of horse equipments, powder, powder horns, etc. Sergeant 
Charles Brown, of Company K, Fifth Infantry, California Volunteers, 
is mentioned in Captain Tidball's report for his zeal and energy in this 
scout. 

Remarks on Return of Company A, for June, 1864. — The company has 
been engaged during the month on patrol and picket duty, and assisting 
Union refugees to the post who were in a state of destitution. Distance 
traveled by each animal, three hundred miles. 

Remarks on Return of Company D, First Cavalry, for June, 1864- — 
Corporal Smith and three privates, while on escort to Major Willis, First 
Infantry, California Volunteers, to Francisco River, had . a skirmish 



FIRST REGIMENT OF CAVALRY. 75 

with Indians, in which one Indian was killed by Corporal Smith and 
one by Private Grillin. 

Remarks on Return of Company H, First Cavalry, for July, I864. — 
The company left Tucson, A. T., June 5, 1864; arrived at Camp Miem- 
bres, N. M., June 15, 1864. On June 20, 1864, Captain Campbell, Lieu- 
tenant Billings, and thirty-four men, together with a detachment of 
Fifth Infantry, California Volunteers, under command of Captain Whit- 
lock, Fifth Infantry, went on a scout after Indians in the Corralitas, 
Sonora. Captured three Apaches; returned on the twenty-eighth day 
of June, 1864. On June 30, 1864, started for Los Pimos, N. M., to take 
post, in obedience to Special Orders No. 37, Headquarters Department 
of Arizona Territory. 

August — , 1864. — Major Thomas J. Blakeney, First Cavalry, Califor- 
nia Volunteers, on a scout of thirty days after Apache Indians, killed ten 
and captured two Indians, and destroyed twenty acres of corn and large 
quantities of pumpkins, beans, etc. 

August — , 1864. — The command, consisting in part of a detachment 
of Company F, First Cavalry, which left Fort Cummings on the fifth 
day of August, on a scout to Lake Guzman, killed one Indian near the 
Florida Mountains. Very few Indians were seen, they having evidently 
deserted the country on the approach of the troops, who, on this scout, 
marched twelve hundred miles. 

Remarks on Muster Roll of Company H, First Cavalry, for November 
and December, I864. — Lieutenant Samburn, with fifty men, on expedi- 
tion against Apache Indians, under the command of Colonel Oscar M. 
Brown, First Cavalry, California Volunteers, for sixty days. Captured 
four squaws. Distance marched, twelve hundred miles, from the first 
of October to the thirtieth of November, 1864. Lieutenant Billings, 
with ten men, on scout against Apache Indians, twenty days. Distance 
marched, six hundred miles. Lieutenant Samburn, with ten men, on 
scout against Apache Indians, three days. Distance marched, one hun- 
dred and fifty miles. 

During November, 1864, an expedition was sent out against the Co- 
manche and Kiowa Indians, under Colonel Christopher Carson (Kit 
Carson), First New Mexico Cavalry, consisting of fourteen commissioned 
officers and three hundred and twenty enlisted men, including Compa- 
nies B, K, and M, First California Cavalry, one company of First Cali- 
fornia Infantry, two companies of First New Mexico Cavalry, and 
seventy-five friendly Ute Indians. 

On the twenty-fifth of November they attacked a Kiowa village, ot 
about one hundred and fifty lodges, near the old adobe fort on the Cana- 
dian River in northern Texas; and after a severe fight compelled the 
Indians to retreat, with a loss of sixty killed and wounded. The vil- 
lage was then destroyed. The engagement commenced at 8:12 a. m., 
and lasted, without intermission, until sunset. In this fight, Privates 
John O'Connell and John Sullivan, of Company M, First Cavalry, Cal- 
ifornia Volunteers, were killed, and Corporal Newman, Privates Thomas 
Briggs, J. Jameson, — Mapes, Jasper Winant, J. Horsley, of Company B; 
Holygrafer, of Company G, First Cavalry, California Volunteers; An- 
tonio Duro and Antonio Sanches, of Company M, and H. Romero, of 
Company I, First Cavalry, New Mexico Volunteers, were wounded. 
Four Utes were wounded. 

Colonel Carson, in his report, mentions the following officers as deserv- 



76 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

ing the highest praise: Major McCleave, Captain Fritz, and Lieutenant 
Heath, of First Cavalry, California Volunteers; Captains Dens and Ber- 
ney, First Cavalry, New Mexico Volunteers; Lieutenant Pettis, First 
Infantry, California Volunteers; Lieutenant Edgar, First Cavalry, New 
Mexico Volunteers; and Assistant Surgeon Geo. S. Courtright, United 
States Volunteers. 

The command destroyed one hundred and fifty lodges of the best 
manufacture, a large amount of dried meats, berries, buffalo robes, 
powder, cooking utensils, etc.; also a buggy and spring wagon, the 
property of " Sierrito," or " Little Mountain," the Kiowa chief. 

November 27, 1864. — Colonel Oscar M. Brown, First Cavalry, California 
Volunteers, with one hundred men, returned from a scout to the Apache 
country. Four squaws were captured by Colonel Brown's command. 
Although this scout, of nearly sixty days, was unsuccessful, it was one 
of the hardest of the year. 

Remarks on Muster Roll of Company L, First Cavalry, for January and 
February, 1865. — On February seventeenth a party of seventy or eighty 
Apache Lidians attacked the Vedette Station, at Fort Buchanan (six 
men of Company L). At the first fire they wounded the Corporal in 
charge, and then set fire to the building. The soldiers, when the roof 
began to fall in, broke from the burning house and fought their way 
through the Indians. One man, who was out hunting, is missing. The 
Indians captured the horses and stores. Two Indians known to be 
killed. 

During the month of February, 1865, a man named Leaton, who had 
been a Colonel in the Confederate army, was given a Colonel's commis- 
sion in the Mexican army by President Juarez, with permission to raise a 
guerrilla regiment to fight the French, who were then occupying Mexico 
under the Emperor Maximillian. 

Colonel Leaton established his headquarters at the town of Guada- 
lupe, on the Mexican side of the Rio Grande, about twenty-five miles 
below the town of San Elizario, Texas, which was garrisoned by Com- 
pany C, First California Cavalry, under command of First Lieutenant- 
R. H. Orton, of Company F, of same regiment. Colonel Leaton, after 
establishing his headquarters, sent recruiting agents to the American 
side of the river, and by offering extraordinary inducements in the way 
of bounties, offices in the regiment, and the payment of large sums for 
such horses, arms, etc., as they might bring with them, caused a large 
number of the Union soldiers to desert and join his regiment. Lieu- 
tenant Orton, after learning what was going on, resolved to break up 
the organization or drive them away from the vicinity of his post; and 
taking from ten to twenty-five men each time, made five raids into 
Mexico, twice surrounding their rendezvous and surprising their party, 
and once, with ten men, charging into a party of fourteen, killing one, 
and capturing, at different times, a large number of deserters and 
recovering a large amount of Government property. He made a report 
of the transactions of Colonel Leaton, which report was sent by General 
Carleton to the President of Mexico, who thereupon gave orders for the 
disbandment of the regiment and the arrest of Colonel Leaton. Lieu- 
tenant Orton was promoted to be Captain of Company M of his regi- 
ment, on account of the above mentioned service. 

In the month of May, 1865, Company F, First Cavalry, was attached 
to an expedition under Colonel " Kit " Carson, which was .ordered to 



FIRST REGIMENT OF CAVALRY. 77 

proceed to the Comanche country, and build a fort on the road leading 
from Santa Fe to the States, for the protection of trains passing back 
and forth through that dangerous country, and to escort trains through 
the part most exposed to Indian depredations. The command consisted 
of three hundred and two officers and enlisted men. Lieutenant Orton, 
of Company F, was Adjutant, and Lieutenant Savage, of same com- 
pany, was Quartermaster and Commissary. A stone fort was built at a 
place called Cedar Bluffs, in that part of Indian Territory now known 
as " No Man's Land," and named Fort Nichols. On the fifteenth of 
June, a train, which Company F, First Cavalry, was escorting from Fort 
Nichols to Fort Larned, Kansas, was attacked by about fifty mounted 
Comanche warriors. The attack was repulsed by the company, which 
followed the retreating savages several miles, killing and wounding six 
Indians. There was no loss to the company, though a Mexican herder 
was killed in the first attack on the train. The company remained at 
Fort Nichols from May until October, and assisted in escorting every 
train safely through the country. 

On the fifteenth of June, 1865, Major Emil Fritz, First Cavalry, with 
Captain B. F. Fox, Company H, First Cavalry, went in pursuit of a 
band of eighty or ninety Navajoes, who had escaped from Fort Sumner. 
On the twentieth captured their camp, with their supplies, several 
animals, and one Indian child. The Indians escaped among the rocks 
on the mountain, their camp being in a very rough cafion. This com- 
mand suffered greatly for want of water. 

Companies H and M cooperated in the above mentioned expedition, 
by guarding the crossings of the Rio Grande. 

Remarks on Muster Roll of Company G, First Cavalry, for July and 
August, 1865. — Captain Gorham, with a detachment of his company, 
left Fort Sumner, New Mexico, on June 13, 1865, in pursuit of runaway 
Indians (Navajoes) — captives on the Bosque Rodondo Reservation. 
Fought them on the first day of July, 1865, near the Sacramento Mount- 
ains, New Mexico, killing two, and capturing one thousand head of 
sheep, forty-seven horses, and destroying their village. Traveled about 
twenty-five miles a day. Total distance traveled, about one thousand 
and twenty-five miles, in forty-three days. 

Remarks on Muster Roll of Company H, First Cavalry, for July and 
August, 1865. — Lieutenant Billings and nine men had a fight with 
Indians near San Andreas Pass, July 1, 1865. There were ten Indians 
killed. Private Abner C. Lull, of Company H, was severely wounded 
in the groin; one horse killed. Distance marched, six hundred miles. 
Lieutenant Samburn, with twenty men, started after Indians July 20, 
1865, with ten days' rations. Distance marched, four hundred miles. 

On the twelfth day of August Lieutenant Billings, with twenty men, 
had a fight with Indians near White Mountains, in which four Indians 
were killed. Distance marched, three hundred miles. 

Remarks on Muster Roll of Company H, First Cavalry, for September and 
October, 1865. — Lieutenant Billings, with thirty men, had a fight with 
Indians near La Monica Springs, September 4, 1865, in which three 
Indians were killed. Distance marched, two hundred miles. 

Lieutenant Billings, with sixteen men as escort for Dr. Courtright to 
Caiiada Alamosa, from September eighteenth to twenty-second. Dis- 
tance marched, one hundred miles. 

Captain Samburn, with ten men on scout after Indians, from Septem- 



78 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

ber twenty-seventh to October second. Distance marched, one hundred 
and eighty miles. 

Captain Samburn and Lieutenant Billings, with fifty-one enlisted 
men, on scout after Indians from October sixteenth to twenty-sixth. 
Distance marched, two hundred and twenty miles. 

ComiDany B, First Cavalry, left Fort Sumner, N. M., November 8, 

1865, pursuant to Special Orders No. 28, c. s.. Headquarters Fort Sum- 
ner, N. M., on a scout after Mescalero Apaches, through the White and 
Sacramento Mountains. Distance traveled, seven hundred and fifty- 
eight miles. 

The company left Fort Stanton, N. M., December 2, 1865, to continue 
the scout after the Apaches through the White and Sacramento Mount- 
ains, and returned to camp, near the cost, December 23, 1865. Distance 
traveled, three hundred and twenty-one miles. 

Remarks on Muster Roll of Company L, First Cavalry, for November 
and December, 1865. — November first; Lieutenant Norton and thirty men 
(Major James Gorman, commanding), on a scout after Indians. They 
attacked and destroyed an Indian rancheria, killed seven and wounded 
a number of Indians. Captured four horses and two herds of cattle. 
Destroyed the provisions, houses, and building. No injuries to any of 
our men. 

Remarks on Muster Roll of Company G, First Cavalry, for March and 
April, 1866. — Captain Gorham and a detachment of twenty-five men of 
the company, w^ere on a scout for twenty-five days in March and April, 

1866. Killed two Indians, wounded four, and took eight prisoners. 
Whole distance traveled, four hundred and one miles. 

During the month of January, 1866, word was received at Fort Selden, 
New Mexico, that a large band of Apache Indians had taken possession 
of the town of Janos, Mexico. Whereupon Colonel Edward B. Willis, 
commanding the post, resolved to go to the relief of the town. He organ- 
ized an expedition consisting of fifty infantrymen and twenty-five picked 
men of Company M, First California Cavalry, under Captain R. H. 
Orton of that company. The expedition sought, by traveling nights and 
concealing itself during the daytime, to surprise the enemy. On the 
tenth day the command came in sight of the town, about daylight, and 
scouts were sent forward to learn the situation of affairs, when, to the 
great disappointment of all in the expedition, it was found that the 
Indians had in some way been apprised of the approach of the troops 
and had fled to the mountains. The inhabitants of the town were very 
grateful to the Union troops, for it was owing to their approach that the 
Indians abandoned the town, where they had committed numberless 
outrages, and the people were in great fear of their lives. The troops 
were feted and shown every favor possible for two days. The troops 
were absent on this expedition over a month, and marched nearly five 
hundred miles. 

On the twenty-first of August, 1866, a band of about seventy-five 
Apache Indians made an attack on a haying party within two miles of 
Fort Selden, killing three men and taking all their animals. First Lieu- 
tenant James J. Billings, Company M, First California Cavalry, was 
sent in pursuit with six members of his company. It was thought, at 
the time Lieutenant Billings was sent out, that it was a small party. 
He overtook them in a deep caiion, about ten miles from the post, and 
attacked them as they were ascending the sides of the caiion, wounding 



FIRST REGIMENT OF CAVALRY. 79 

several. Finding so large a party, he returned to the post for reinforce- 
ments. In the meantime, Captain R. H. Orton, Company M, who had 
returned to the post after Lieutenant Billings' departure, was ordered to 
take fifteen men and cross to the west bank of the Rio Grande, and inter- 
cept them at the San Diego Crossing, a ford twelve miles above, towards 
which the Indians were moving. Captain Orton, by hard riding, most 
of the way at a gallop, over rough mountain trails, arrived at the ford 
ahead of the Indians, upon which they turned back and crossed the 
Jornada del Muerto (journey of death) towards the San Andreas Mount- 
ains. Captain Orton then came back to the ferry near the post and, 
taking their trail, followed them into the mountains, where the trail was 
lost, owing to the scattering of the band. While on the trail he came 
upon the body of a young man whose name was afterwards ascertained 
to have been W. H. Prescott, and who had been killed by the Indians, 
which he buried. 

The following are the stations of the different companies, as shown 
by the monthly returns and muster rolls on the last days of the months: 

COMPANY A. 

Camp Carleton, Cal October 31, 1861. 

Camp Carleton, Cal December 31, 1861. 

Camp Carleton, Cal February 28, 1862. 

Pimos Villages, A. T. April 30, 1862. 

Canada del Oro, A. T June 30, 1862. 

Tucson, A. T July 31, 1862. 

Fort Fillmore, N. M August 31, 1862. 

Camp Johnson, N. M. September 31, 1862. 

Camp Johnson, N. M. October 31, 1862. 

In the field, N. M November 30, 1862. 

Las Cruces, N. M December 31, 1862. 

Rio Francisco, N. M January 31, 1863. 

Fort West, N. M February 28, 1863, 

Fort West, N. M. March 31, 1863. 

Fort West, N. M.. ....April 30, 1863. 

Fort West, N. M May 20, 1863. 

Hot Springs, N. M June 30, 1863. 

Cienega De Los Apaches July 31, 1863. 

Camp on the Rio Miembres, N. M Augvist 31, 1863. 

Camp on the Rio Miembres, N. M September 30, 1863. 

Las Cruces, N. M October 31, 1863. 

Las Cruces, N. M November 30, 1863. 

San Elizario, Texas December 31, 1863. 

San Elizario, Texas January 31, 1864. 

San Elizario, Texas February 29, 1864. 

San Elizario, Texas March 31, 1864. 

San Elizario, Texas April 30, 1864. 

San Elizario, Texas May 31, 1864. 

San Elizario, Texas. June 30, 1864. 

Las Cruces, N. M. August 31, 1864. 

The foregoing table shows the stations of the original company from 
the time it was stationed at Camp Carleton, near San Bernardino, Cal., 
until it was mustered out at Las Cruces, N. M., August 31, 1864. The 
company being under the command of Captains McCleave and French. 

The following table shows the stations of the new company, which 
was commanded by Captain Ledyard: 

Drum Barracks, Cal April 30, 1865. 

Fort Whipple, A. T August 31, 1865. 

Fort Whipple, A. T ..October 31, 1865. 

Fort Whipple, A. T. December 31, 1865. 

Fort Whipple, A. T February 28, 1866. 



80 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

COMPANY B. 

En route to Rio Grande, A. T June 30, 1862. 

Fort Thorn, A. T July 31, 1862. 

Fort Fillmore, N. M August 31, 1862. 

En route to Tucson, A. T September 30, 1862. 

Tucson, A. T October 31, 1862. 

Tucson, A. T November 30, 1862. 

December — , . 

Tucson, A. T January 31, 1863. 

Fort West, N. M February 28, 1863. 

Fort West, N. M March 31, 1863. 

Fort West, N. M April 30, 1863. 

Fort West, N. M May 31, 1863. 

Fort Stanton, N. M June 30, 1863. 

Fort Stanton, N. M July 31, 1863. 

Fort Stanton, N. M August 31, 1863. 

Fort Union, N. M September 30, 1863. 

Fort Union, N. M October 31, 1863. 

Fort Union, N. M November 30, 1863. 

Fort Union, N. M December 31,1863. 

Fort Union, N. M January 31, 1864. 

Fort Union, N. M February 29, 1864. 

Fort Wingate, N. M March 31, 1864. 

Fort Wingate, N. M. April 30, 1864. 

Fort Sumner, N. M June 30, 1864. 

Fort Sumner, N. M Julv 31, 1864. 

Fort Sumner, N. M. August 31, 1864. 

Fort Union, N. M. September 30, 1864. 

Fort Sumner, N. M October 31, 1864. 

Fort Sumner, N. M. November 30, 1864. 

Fort Sumner, N. M December 31, 1864. 

Fort Sumner, N. M January 31, 1865. 

Fort Sumner, N. M February 28, 1865. 

Fort Sumner, N. M March 31, 1865. 

Fort Sumner, N. M April 30, 1865. 

Fort Sumner, N. M May 31, 1865. 

Fort Sumner, N. M June 30, 1865. 

Fort Sumner, N. M July 31, 1865. 

Fort Sumner, N. M. August 31, 1865. 

Fort Sumner, N. M September 30, 1865. 

Fort Sumner, N. M October 31, 1865. 

Camp near Fort Stanton, N. M November 30, 1865. 

Camp near Fort Stanton, N. M December 31, 1865. 

Fort Sumner, N. M Januarv 31, 1866. 

Fort Sumner, N. M February 28, 1866. 

Fort Sumner, N. M March 31, 1866. 

Fort Sumner, N. M April 30, 1866. 

Fort Sumner, N. M May 31, 1866. 

Fort Sumner, N. M June30, 1866. 

Fort Sumner, N. M July 31, 1866. 

COMPANY C. 

En route to Rio Grande, A. T June 30, 1862. 

Fort Thorn, A. T July 31, 1862. 

Mouth of Canon de los Caminos, on the Rio Grande, Texas Augusi 31, 1862. 

Camp Johnson, Texas September 30, 1862. 

Fort Craig, N. M October 31, 1862. 

Fort Craig, N. M November 30, 1862. 

Fort Craig, N. M December 31, 1862. 

Rio Francisco, A. T January 31, 1863. 

Fort West, N. M Febrimry 28, 1863. 

Fort West, N. M March 31, 1863. 

Las Cruces, N. M April 30, 1863. 

Colton Woods, N. M May 31, 1863. 

Camp near Franklin, Texas June 30, 1863. 

Camp on the Rio Grande, N. M . July 31, 1863. 

Camp on the Rio Miembres, N. M August 31, 1863. 

Camp on the Rio Miembres, N. M September 30, 1863. 

Camp on the Rio Miembres, N. M October 31, 1863. 

Camp on the Rio Miembres, N. M November 30, 1863. 

Camp on the Rio Miembres, N. M December 31, 1863. 

Camp on the Rio Miembres, N. M January 31, 1864. 

Camp on the Rio Miembres, N. M February 29, 1864, 



FIRST REGIMENT OF CAVALRY. 81 

Camp Miembres, N. M. March 31, 1864. 

Camp Miembres, N. M. April 30, 1864. 

Camp Miembres, N. M. May 31, 1864. 

Camp Smith, A. T. Jmie 30, 1864. 

Fort Goodwin, A. T. .July 31, 1864. 

Las Cruces, N. M. August 31, 1864. 

The original company, Captains Shirland and Nichols, Avas mustered 
out of service at Las Cruces, August 31, 1864, and a new company was 
organized during the months of November and December by First Lieu- 
tenant R. H. Orton, of Company F, who was detailed as regimental 
recruiting officer for that purpose. Lieutenant Orton commanded the 
company until Captain Nichols received his commission, and relieved 
him from the command about March 1, 1865, at San Elizario, Tex. 

The new Company C was stationed at the following points: 

Franklin, Texas November 30, 1864. 

Franklin, Texas December 31, 1864. 

San Elizario, Texas January 31, 1865. 

Franklin, Texas March 1, 1865. 

Franklin, Texas...., March 31, 1865. 

San Elizario, Texas April 30, 1865. 

San Elizario, Texas June 1, 1865. 

Franklin, Texas June 30, 1865. 

Grazing Camp, near Franklin, Texas July 31, 1865. 

Fort Selden, N. M. August 31, 1865. 

Camp Miembres, N. M. September 30, 1865. 

Camp Miembres, N. M October 31, 1865. 

Camp Miembres, N. M November 30, 1865. 

Camp Miembres, N. M December 31, 1865. 

Camp Miembres, N. M February 28, 1866. 

Camp Miembres, N. M March 31, 1866. 

Camp Miembres, N. M : April 30, 1866. 

Camp Miembres, N. M May 31, 1866. 

Camp at Fort McLean, N. M June 30, 1866. 

Camp Miembres, N. M July 31, 1866. 

Camp near Fort Cummings, N. M. Augus"t 31, 1866. 

COMPANY D. 

Cafiada del Oro, A. T June 30, 1862. 

En route to Rio Grande July 31, 1862. 

Dinsmore Springs, A. T. August 31, 1862. 

Camp Leonard, near Fort Quitman, Texas September 30, 1862. 

San Elizario, Texas October 31, 1862. 

Ojo del Martin, Texas November 30, 1862. 

Franklin, Texas December 31, 1862. 

Camp near Tula Rosa, N. M. January 31, 1863. 

Fort Crais, N. M February 28, 1863. 

Fort Craig, N.M March 31, 1863. 

En Tonte between Forts West and Craig, N.M April 30, 1863. 

Tula Rosa Valley, N. M. Mav 31, 1863. 

Fort Craig, N. M June 30, 1863. 

Fort Craig, N. M ..July 31, 1863. 

Fort Craig, N. M Augiist 31, 1863. 

Fort Craig, N.M September 30, 1863. 

Fort Craig, N. M October 31, 1863. 

Fort Craig, N. M November 30, 1863. 

Fort Craig, N. M December 31, 1863. 

Fort Craig, N. M Januarv 31, 1864. 

Fort Craig, N. M March 31, 1864. 

Navaio Springs, N. M April 30, 1864. 

Fort \Vhipple, A. T Mav 31, 1864. 

Fort Whipple, A. T June 30, 1864. 

Fort Craig, N. M Julv31, 1864. 

Fort Craig, N. M ..August 31, 1864. 

Fort Craig, N. M September 30, 1864. 



82 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

COMPANY E. 

Caiiadadel Oro, A. T June 30, 

Reventon Station, A. T ..July 31 

Eeventon Station, A. T August 31 

Tucson, A. T September 30; 

October — 

Tucson7A. T November 30 

LaMesilla, N. M December 31 

Picacho, A. T January 31 

Tucson, A. T February28 

Gila City, A. T March 31^ 

Tucson, A. T. April 30 

Las Cruces, N. M May 31 

San Pedro Crossing, A. T June 30 

Las Cruces, N. M July 31 

Las Cruces, N. M August 31 

Camp on Rio Miembres, N. M. September 30, 

Camp on Rio Miembres, N. M. October 31, 

Camp on Rio Miembres, N. M November 30 

Camp on Rio Miembres, N. M December 31 

Camp on Rio Miembres, N. M January 31 

Franklin, Texas Februarv 1 

Franklin, Texas March 1 

Franklin, Texas April 1 

Franklin, Texas May 1 

Camp at Lemon Ranch, A. T June 1 

Camp Smith, A. T June 30 

CampRiggs, A. T July 31 

Camp near Las Cruces, N. M August 31 

The foregoing table shows the stations of the original Company E, 
under Captains Mead and Wellman. The following table shows the 
stations of the new Company E, under Captain Mcllray: 

Drum Barracks, Cal May 31, 1865. 

Drum Barracks, Cal June 30, 1865. 

Drum Barracks, Cal July 31, 1865. 

Drum Barracks, Cal August 31, 1865. 

Drum Barracks, Cal September 30, 1865. 

Drum Barracks, Cal -• October 31, 1865. 

Drum Barracks, Cal November 30, 1865. 

Drum Barracks. Cal December 31, 1865. 

COMPANY F. 

Camp Stanford, near Stockton October 31, 1863. 

Camp Union, Sacramento : November 30, 1863. 

Camp Union, Cal January 31, 1864. 

At sea, en route for Drum Barracks February 29, 1864. 

Camp, near Fort Yuma, Cal March 31, 1864. 

Camp, at Blue Water Station, en route for Tucson, A. T. April 30, 1864. 

Camp Miembres, N. M. . May 31, 1864. 

Camp Miembres, N. M June 30, 1864. 

Camp, near Las Cruces, N. M August 2, 1864. 

Cottonwood, eighteen miles below Las Cruces, N. M. August 23, 1864. 

San Elizario, Texas September 10, 1864. 

SanElizario, Texas October 3, 1864. 

San Elizario, Texas October 31, 1864, 

San Elizario, Texas November 30, 1864. 

SanElizario, Texas December 31, 1864.. 

SanElizario, Texas January 31, 1865. 

Fort Craig, N. M February 28, 1865, 

LosPinos, N. M March 31, 1865. 

Fort Union, N. M. April 30, 1865. 

Cedar Bluffs, N. M. May 31, 1865. 

Fort Dodge, Kansas June 30, 1865. 

Camp, on the Jornada, Kansas July 31, 1865. 

Camp Nichols, N. M August 31, 1865. 

Fort Union, N. M. , September 30, 1865, 

Fort Sumner, N. M October 31, 1865, 

Fort Sumner, N, M November 30, 1865. 

Fort Sumner, N. M. December 31, 1865. 

Fort Sumner, N. M --- - January 31, 1866. 



FIRST REGIMENT OF CAVALRY. 83 

Fort Sumner, N. M February 28, 1866. 

Fort Sumner, N. M March 31, 1866. 

Fort Sumner, N. M April 30, 1866. 

Fort Sumner, N. M.. May 81, 1866. 

Fort Sumner, N. M. -June 30, 1866. 

Fort Sumner, N. M July 31, 1866. 

Fort Sumner, N. M August 31, 1866. 

Los Pinos, N. M September 30, 1866. 

COMPANY G. 

This company was mustered into the United States service on the 
twelfth day of June, 1863, at Camp Stanford, near Stockton, California. 

Camp Drum, Cal. July 31, 1863. 

Camp Drum, Cal. August 31, 1863. 

Camp Drum, Cal. .September 30, 1863. 

Camp Drum, Cal October 31. 1863. 

Camp Drum, Cal November 30, 1863. 

Fort Yuma, Cal., en route to Tucson, A. T December 20, 1863. 

Tucson, A. T... January 20, 1864. 

Tucson, A. T. February 29, 1864. 

Tucson, A. T. ..March 31, 1864. 

Camp McCleave, Texas April 30, 1864. 

Camp McCleave, Texas May 29, 1864. 

Fort Sumner, N. M June 30, 1864. 

Fort Sumner, N. M July 31, 1864. 

Fort Sumner, N. M August 31, 1864. 

Fort Sumner, N. M September 30, 1864. 

Fort Sumner, N. M ..October 31, 1864. 

Fort Sumner, N. M November 30, 1864. 

Fort Sumner, N. M. December 31, 1864. 

Fort Sumner, N. M ..January 31, 1865. 

Fort Sumner, N. M February 28, 1865. 

Fort Sumner, N. M March 31, 1865. 

Fort Sumner, N. M April 30, 1865. 

Fort Sumner, N. M May 31, 1865. 

Fort Sumner, N. M. ....June 30, 1865. 

Fort Sumner, N. M July 31, 1865. 

Fort Sumner, N. M August 31, 1865. 

Fort Sumner, N. M September 30, 1865. 

Camp No. 2, en route from Fort Sumner to Albuquerque, N. M October 31, 1865. 

Albuquerque, N. M November 30, 1865. 

Albuquerque, N. M. December 31, 1865. 

Albuquerque, N. M January 31, 1866. 

Fort Wingate, N. M February 28, 1866. 

Fort Wingate, N. M March 31, 1866. 

Fort Wingate, N. M. April 30, 1866. 

Fort "Wingate, N. M May 31, 1866. 

Fort Wingate, N. M.... June 30, 1866. 

Fort Wingate, N. M July 31, 1866. 

Fort Wingate, N. M. August 31, 1866. 

COMPANY H. 

Camp Union, Cal. ...December 31, 1863. 

Camp Union, Cal January 31, 1864. 

Camp Union, Cal February 29, 1864. 

Drum Barracks, Cal. March 31, 1864. 

En route for Tucson, A. T April 30, 1864. 

Tucson, A. T. May 31, 1864. 

En route for Los Pinos, N. M June 30, 1864. 

SanElizario, Texas July 31, 1864. 

Fort Craig, N. M August 31, 1864. 

Fort Craig, N. M September 30, 1864. 

Fort Craig, N. M. .October 31, 1864. 

Fort Craig, N. M November 30, 1.S64. 

Fort Craig, N. M December 31, 1J<64. 

Fort Craig, N. M January 31, 1865. 

Fort Craig, N. M February 28, 1865. 

Fort Craig, N. M March 31, 1865. 

Fort Craig, N. M April 30, 1865. 

Fort Craig, N. M May 31, 1865. 

Fort Craig, N. M. June 30, 1865. 

Fort Craig, N. M - July 31, 1865. 



84 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 



Fort Cra: 
Fort Cra 
Fort Cra 
Fort Cra 
Fort Cra 
Fort Cra 
Fort Cra 
Fort Cra 
Fort Cra 
Fort Cra 
Fort Cra 
Fort Cra 
Fort Cra 



g, N. M. August 31, 1865. 

g, N. M. September 30, 1865. 

I, N. M. October 31, 1865. 

g N. M. December 2, 1865. 

g N. M. - December 31, 1865, 

g, N. M. January 81, 1866. 

g, N. M. February 28, 1866. 

g, N. M. March 31, 1866. 

g N. M. - . April 30, 1866. 

g, N. M May31, 1866. 

g, N. M. JuneSO, 1866. 

g, N. M. July 31, 1866. 

g, N. M. August 31, 1866. 



COMPANY I. 



1863. 
1864. 
1864. 
1864. 
1864. 
1864. 
1864. 
1864. 
1864. 
1864. 
1864. 
1864. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1865. 
1866. 
1866. 
1866. 
1866. 



Benicia Barracks, Cal December 31 

Benicia Barracks, Cal January 31 

Benicia Barracks, Cal February 29 

En route for Tucson, A. T April 30 

El Reventon, A. T May 31 

Tubac, A. T. JuneSO 

Tubac, A. T July 31 

Fort Goodwin, A. T August 31 

Fort Goodwin, A. T. September 30 

Fort Goodwin, A. T October 31 

Fort Goodwin, A. T. November 30 

Fort Goodwin, A. T December 31 

Fort Goodwin, A. T. January 31 

Fort Goodwin, A. T February 28 

Fort Goodwin, A. T. March 31 

Fort Goodwin, A. T April 30 

Fort Goodwin, A. T. ^ May 31 

Fort Goodwin, A. T June 30, 

Fort Goodwin, A. T July 31 

Fort Goodwin, A. T August 31 

Fort Goodwin, A. T. September 30 

Fort Goodwin, A. T October 31 

Fort McDowell, A. T. November 30 

Fort McDowell, A. T December 31 

Fort McDowell, A. T. January 31 

Fort McDowell, A. T. February 28 

Fort McDowell, A. T. March 31 

Fort McDowell, A. T. April 30 

COMPANY K. 

Camp Morris, Cal October 31, 1863. 

Camp Morris, Cal November 30, 1863. 

Drum Barracks, Cal December 31, 1863. 

Drum Barracks, Cal. January 31, 1864. 

En route for Tucson, A. T February 29, 1864. 

En route for Fort Craig, N. M March 31, 1864. 

Camp Valverde, Fort Craig, N. M April 30, 1864. 

Fort Craig, N. M JuneSO, 1864. 

Fort Union, N. M August 31. 1864. 

Cottonwood Springs October 31, 1864. 

Fort Union, N. M December 31, 1864. 

Fort Union, N. M Februarv 28, 1865. 

Fort Union, N. M April 30, 1865. 

Camp, near Fort Earned, Kansas JuneSO, 1865. 

Camp, at Lower Cimarron Springs August 31, 1865. 

Rock Creek, N. M., en route for Fort Union, N. M. October 31, 1865. 

Camp Lincoln, N. M. December 31, 1865. 

Camp Lincoln, N. M February 28, 1866. 

Camp Lincoln, N. M April SO, 1866. 

Fort Union, N. M JuneSO, 1866. 

COMPANY L. 

Camp Union, Cal October 1, 1863. 

Camp Union, Cal October 31, 1863. 

Camp Union, Cal November 30, 1863. 

Camp Union, CaL December 31, 1863. 

Drum Barracks, Cal - February 1, 1864. 



FIRST REGIMENT OF CAVALRY. 85 

Drum Barra'ks, Cal : March 1, 1861. 

Reventon, A. T A]>ril 30, 1864. 

Reventon, A. T May 31, 1864. 

Tubac, A. T June 80, 1864. 

Tubac, A. T. July 31, 1864. 

Tubac, A. T. August 31, 1864. 

Tubac, A. T . October 1, 1864. 

Tubac, A. T . October 31, 1864. 

Tubac, A. T. November 30, 1864. 

Tubac, A. T. December 31, 1864. 

Tubac, A. T. January 31, 1865. 

Tubac, A. T. February 28, 1865. 

Tubac, A. T. - Marcli 31, 1865. 

Tubac, A. T. April 30, 1865. 

Tubac, A. T. May 31, 1865. 

Fort BoNvie, A. T June 30, 1865. 

Fort Bowie, A. T July 31, 1865. 

Fort Bo\yie, A. T. August 31, 1865. 

Fort Bowie, A. T September 30, 1865. 

Fort Bowie, A. T October 31, 1865. 

Fort Bowie, A. T December 1, 1865. 

Fort Bowie, A. T December 31, 1865. 

Fort Bowie, A. T. January .31, 1866. 

Fort McDowell, A. T February 28, 1866. 

Fort Bowie, A. T March 31, 1866. 

Fort Bowie, A. T April 30, 1866. 

COMPANY M. 

Camp Union, Cal July 1, 1863. 

Camp Union, Cal. August 1, 1863. 

Camp Union, Cal September 30, 1863. 

Camp Union, Cal October31, 1863. 

Camp Union, Cal Noyember 30, 1863. 

Camp Union, Cal. December 31, 1863. 

Camp Union, Cal January 31, 1864. 

Pilot Knob, en route from Drum Barracks, Cal., to Tucson, A. T February 29, 1864. 

Camp Goodwin, A. T Marcli 31, 1864. 

LasCruces, N. M April 30, 1864. 

LasCruces, N. M May 31, 1864. 

LasCruces, N. M June 30, 1>^64. 

Las Cruces, N. M July 31, 1864. 

Las Cruces, N. M. . - September 30, 1864. 

Hatch's Ranch, N. M October 31, 1864. 

Camp, Blue Water Creek Noyember 30, 1864. 

Camp, " Kiowa and Comanche Expedition, "near Fort Bascom, N. ]\[.. December 31, 1864. 

Las Criices, N. M January 31, 1865. 

Las Cruces, N. M April 30, 1865. 

Fort Selden, N. M May 31, 1865. 

Fort Craig, N. M June 30, 1865. 

Fort Selden, N. M July 31, 1865. 

Fort Selden, N. M August 31, 1865. 

Fort Selden, N. M - September 30, 1865. 

Fort Selden, N. M October 31, 1865. 

Fort Selden. N. M Noyember 30, 1865. 

Fort Selden, N. M December 31, 1865. 

Fort Selden, N. M. January 31, 1866. 

Fort Selden, N. M February 28, 1866. 

Fort Selden, N. M March 31, 1866. 

Fort Selden, N. M April 30, 1^66. 

Fort Selden, N. M May 31, 1866. 

Fort Selden, N. M June 30, 1866. 

Fort Selden, N. M - July 31, 1866. 

Fort Selden, N. M August .31, 1866. 

Baird's Ranch, N. M September 30, 1866. 

All of the companies of the First Cavalry — Companies B, C, F, G, H, 
K, and M — stationed in New Mexico and Texas, were ordered to assemble 
at' Baird's Ranch, near Albuquerque, for the purpose of being mustered 
out of the United States service, during the month of Seiatember, 1866. 
Company M was mustered out on the thirtieth, the last company organ- 
ization of California Volunteers in the service, though not the last of 



86 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

the California Volunteers, for those wishing to be returned to California 
were consolidated into two companies, one of cavalry and one of 
infantry, constituting the return Column, the whole under command of 
Captain W. F. French, of the First Veteran Infantry, with Lieutenant 
R. E. Comins, of Company F, as Adjutant, and Captain R. H. Orton, 
of Company M, as Quai'termaster and Commissary. Captain Thomas 
A. Stombs, of Company F, commanded the cavalry portion of the Col- 
umn. 

The following officers of the First Cavalry returned with this Column: 
Captains Thomas A. Stombs of Company F, and R. H. Orton of Com- 
pany M; First Lieutenants E. C. Baldwin of Company B, James Longh- 
ead of Company C, and James J. Billings of Company M; Second 
Lieutenants James W. Chambers of Company H, and R. E. Comins of 
Company F. 

The Column left the Rio Grande, near Los Lunas, October 15, 1866, 
and arrived at Drum Barracks, California, December twenty-fourth; 
was embarked on the steamer Orizaba, and arrived in San Francisco 
December twenty-eighth. All but Captain R. H. Orton were mustered 
out at the Presidio December 31, 1866, the latter being mustered out 
January 4, 1867 — the last of the California Volunteers. 



FIRST REGIMENT OP CAVALRY. 



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r-P ° O 



-pre 
O 2 



O O 72 

-I'd "" 

CS bJO. 



o'^ - 

55-2 

O- 



„ O c3 
00 o-<5 



!> 

• O <D 

OJ o 



^02 CQ j:-^ 









:^ !^ 



|.2 



_ -fi >;CE 



aoj o 
r c3 !h 

OS 2 






c3 cS o 



:?-r==« 



G Go 
P3 



00 ~i 



<<S S 



73 1— ' to S'T 

't^ "£ 'g =« oi 

° o ° o TiS 
Gfc G 73 Si2 

C ^^ -1 73^ "^ 
^ -tj ^ (D Cj - 

.G 73. G ir',2 rt 
Ci^G &P^Ph 



CD CD CD CO CD 



CD CD CO CO CO 



CD CD CO 



■* C-1 CO Oi 



OOO 



03 O 

c»0 



ChG 
03 c3 



-u -w -w 



^ 03 O) 

<l t» cc 






be 



-ff i-H CO rH 



CO CD CD CO CD 
00 00 00 00 CO 



cc O O 



bJj,^ "Sh g' 

_5^ oT 3 
<iO CO 1-5 



CO(M CO CD lO 



^ ^ 



bJCbC 

P G 



•w 03 .,5 



fe G 



QQ fe 



O . 

G oT 

fe cS 

G G 

ci oj 
CCOQ 



G ^ 



u u -^ 



G G 



^ fe ft( 



fefe fe 



G G 
02 32 



PL| Ph 



PM Ph 



PhPh Ph Ph Ph 



W W 









.2.5 



O G G C 



73 73 



G G "IS bJi 



gh 



bp o 



^ &: 



WW WW W u4 



W O ^" ^ 



fi— o 



G , 

^ >J 

►— 5 03 

-G 



HjhJ l-q hjS 



FIRST REGIMENT OF CAVALRY. 



105 



— o 



c-c ?4 c 



^^' 



S'S 



5^ 

P to 
pi-' 02 



^.-^-^ 

S CO i-i 

cd 00 o 

o • s 

"a; S 



r=3 



28 

..GO 



O 03 C-:3 



» O O 



o^ 



03 <U . 



03 „ 



So 



O 3 ^ »- 

S S® 03 
N QOOI-5 

(-1 .^ ^" 



-C 03 03. 
00"^°; 



■^ a q; S o 



P £ CO 



O y: O >i 
> S ^ - 












o P S fl^ o 
!Z S o " -^ ^ 



PQ 

. >uo sO 

a^coi-H ."tj 

n O'T !— I CD 



^^f 



02 . 



g O^' ft 



-^"^=^ ao 



-O O' !^ 






s:^' 



_ 03 5.S ^ 
c3 OQi— s'C^ 



O c3 g 
ft 



o3 i^ a> 

o: r- ^ 



J ■rice "5 
3 fc;"E g 

-; c o 






" OJCO 
P>00 



m+j 



S 52:2; 5 



^ c3^' 

OJ C '^ 
fcriC O 



-^ _; CD g o O 



ti 03 J^^ 5? -e 

fe 03 >;2;P^ 



^S 0^- 



:r^ -J 



50 a 



^ "^ _j il 03 .^ 

q; K c3 »^ ^ ;r^ 



cx:- 



PS > 



OPh O 



" •-' 03 

, oi:aj £ 

•^ <U r 



_ 2^- « o 
P tf P 



03 c3&:< 






'^ . o 

-w ^ _ 

r; ~ OJ 






c3 05 - 



^- >^, 52 «^-=^ 






gS5 

d^ 
o 



OQr-l 



on C =^ -- rh t^ 



!«T^ W iHl?,^ S 



;:<D oj 



<V 03-2 
2'p:S 



^^ g 

Q a; Q 

r-P-M 
'- Or-- 

02 a>-p 



c ^ 



P^ 



2 o3 

So 



03 O oi-^ 

o -^ r 

QJ 03^^ 03 



P> 



■2 :a) o 

p^ ; 



_ aj 

goQ 

. o r 

Oi 03 -t3 

•r::o 

O o^ 

, '-* ^^ 
< o;^ 

o3:S g 

' t^ 03 O 
P^ 



^ 


^ 


^ C<l 


_j 


!-o 


J 


-^ 


•^ 


tH 


^ CO 


tH 


?8 




00 


iH 


^ 


^ 


Ttl 


Cf 


cc 


CO CD 






CD 


CO 




CO 


CDCC 


C£ 












a 


ao 


OCOO 










CO 






X 














■iH 


iH 


— ( iH 


tH 


1^ 


tH 








iH >H 


rH 


'-' 


—1 rt 


1-1 


'"' 






c: 


C2 


<N<N 




io' 


I^" 


Cs| 




CI 


(M 


C>1 


lO 


10 CD 

iH r-l 


c: 


T-l 


X 


CD 
<M 




^ 


-w • 






^ 


_J 


^ 


^ 




_^i 




sbcj 
a a; 

<^p 


^ 


_^i 




bb 


0, ^ 


■i ,'~ 1 n 


a 


1 ~t-^ 


;^'l 


r^t 


Pi 


a^ 


-fj 


^ -fj 


a 


H pH 


a 




a: 


<B c3 


tS 


;o 




X 


X 


4) 

X 


03 

X 


PC 


03 

X 


C 


03 

X 


03 

X 


f-^ 


-si 






-H C-J 


^ 


1 00 


1 


1 


J 


i 


1-1 CO 


iH 


m 


J^ 


^ 


J 


:>] 


J 


cr 






1 CD 




CD 




CO 


CD C£ 


C£ 






c: 


























CO oc 








a 








iH 


^ 


1-1 tH 


tH 




iH 




tH 


iH 


1-1 7-1 




tH 




iH 


'-I 


T-l 


iH 


10 


iC 


CD IM 


^ 


;io 


1^1 


CO 


CO 


10 


(NlO 


CD 


10 


iKCO 


1 


cc 


X 


JS 






!M 


tH 






(>? 






oq 


(N 




iH i-( 


1 


""^ 




c^ 


ie 


■^ ih'g 


^ 


1 _jj 


-g^ 


ih 


-g^ 


-g^ 


ci-u 


^ -w 


i^6 


te ie 


A 


be 


cc 


a: 


<>^ 


^ 


1 


0) 

X 


< 


03 
X 


03 
X 


PC 


< 


C 


-SIP 


^. 


0> 

X 


^-5 


< 






i ' 


s-- 


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03 








1 




^- 




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c 


c 


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0) 


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6 




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C 


S 


c 


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03 


03 


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03 






















C, 








« 



Ci 




a 


c 


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^ 


1 QJ 




a 






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c 


03 


a <u 


a 




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0; 


f- 


213 


;&^ 


OS 


03 




03 


Jl-H 


g 


t^ 


gfL, 


03 




03 


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!=. 


f& 


PhP5 


1^ 


1 SS 


fL( 


[in 





h 


^?^ 


Ix- 


n 


f^^ 


tq 





li* 


|g: 


r- 


p 


c c 


a 




a 


a 


03 


a 


a a 


g 


a 


a a 


a 


03 


a 






0: 


03 c3 


of 


1 c3 


03 


03 




03 


03 c 


03 


0! 


03 o3 


"3 




03 


+i 


X 


cz: 


XX 


X 


;x 


X 


m 


f^ 


X 


ox 


X 


X 


XX 


a. 


P 


X 


fe 






















i 
















1 



C 03 



PhPh 



^ ^ u 



a >» 

S a 

X 03 



-afii 
o . 
1-5 >> 









• 




: 




03 




71 


TT. - 


1 


1^ 

a 


Q 


a 


03 


a 


03 

13 



_rS ^ -a 

— . :a 03 



C3 r^- 

ss 



S 03 
03 CJ 



^ :2^„ P 



: o 



bC S ^^ 



a a a >- 



r:::."^ 



03 o 



106 



RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 






CCH 



a> a> 



03' 



iC 



Q 3 

^2 



OJ 



B ^ 



Si-": J? 



6 "^ 



4J a; 






;3 0-t< r-( 



o 



S _- OJ 
c3 " "^ 



=£j .S r-T 

, -; fcli ^*-' ■♦^ 
?'^ a-ifq 









o 

r^ o 



S c3 H s-G £ 



r- -H ^< 



^ 5 f> 



f^ o ° o 
c-*^ & 2 

'^-^ C !» t. 









>s 



m Oo 






02 ^ 



■+J jJ *-■ > Oi 



S^ 



^ ? 



fH ti" 



r^ C3 



a; m 



o3 >- 



(1) c3 



O S o 



'^.2 












IB C3 O) J; 



CD -Si' 



'^ si. 

^ ^^ tH -t^ 

GO 






^S 



. C3 - 

;■ N G 



P-? 



Ci^H S 






.2o2 5o 






fe o 



J' CO i— ' r/l e 



Q PA 






=3 •.> 



"g ^ 

:S G o: 



CD -StS- 
- C ™ CD -"^ 



, IB '^ 
J C^ 03 G 



lO o3-e 
G"ti S 
g O^ 



05 G-e 



=3 -' 
So 

T^ o 






S_ c aJ_---rt_T: 



1 Qi ^ l^ 



000 



rt 



' O 2 =i 

) Si p ^H 
OS 



^-n !« ^ -^ 



Oj G O 



G^^ S 
W S 



£^S ?3 35 ?^ 



; M G 



-a c 



p. p- ,a 
0) a> 0^ 
OQ cc CQ 



o-i 00 — I 



CO CO CO CO CO 









1-1 1-1 -H CO 
CO CO CO CD 



s 3 



OQ-^ Q 



lO IM <M (M 



cG m CD Pi O 



CO CO CO CO 

00 00 00 00 
o~ eo'c-f ic" 






t>G! 



c;> cj 
C G 



G fl C 





*^ 


;^ 








G 


OJ 


OJ 


g 


t=H 


\^ 


1^ 


03 


cS 








G 


G 


G 


ci 


cj 


03 


C/J 


a> 


OD 



.2 IZi 



.22 :z; 



_: u 



0) 05 
> > 

•a .-a 



PM Ph pL| 



P-( Ph 



03 


03 cj 


03 


03 


03 


03 c3 


> 


> > 




> 


> 


> > 


























Ph 


Ch P-i 


Ph 


Ph 


Ph 


PhPh 



^ : j^ i s i G i i 









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sw 



._o 

00 



O ? 



Z' f2 ^ 



_ =3 



;: c o 



(X) »J g 



^ .2-' 



pL| P^Pm Ph Ph C? P5 



■-C ~; '^.^ ai be ot 

<D a> rC o o 00 

p? P^ P^P^ P^ P^- P^ 



^ H 



be bD ^ G r^ 



cc 03 
G >i 
P^P^ 



FIRST REGIMENT OF CAVALRY. 



107 



S ^ 





" 




R P^ 


o 




^3 




T) 




CO 


O 


^ 














Oj 


o 


QO 




»2 


O . 




^ 


Ji 


^3 1^ 


^'^O 


c 




2 ar 




.^ 


5 


^L)J 



^^Q^.5 


Ssr 


tiQ 


CO =5 ©"rt ^ 


<D, 


ai o 


^■^ S^ r 


p (t 


5c^°^^ 


C^ 


C fcn 


"^ -'^^^■i^ 


o 






^' = C . .r 


•^^ 






: ;^, J^ CD ^ ,^" 



K S -■ C 30 



d^42o.2 -^co' ^; 






a c 






i-hE-i !^ 
O 

— OJ 
_ -n ^ 



o I 

r^ a; o 
o j£ >- 



.'^ •■ 

OOP, 

\ ■ ^ ^ 

>;:'^ 

o 



^^ .^ . 

N rT 0^ ,-r a: 
■d s C' " cj 

an S w S Sh 
£ri-^ Oil-, CLi 
g»— ' tch- ' ai 

O O ^ O ° 

^ ^ wJ ^ 

>>o 

:St3 g-s 



H S 03 O . 



^ C; !>• 00 



-C 00 
OJ(N 






^^ o S'S >-i3 



. vD 
»3 CO 

--; 00 









a o 






S ><" 



CO CO oo 
^ -g, CD 



--3 






>§ 






, o OJ c3 



aZ fi'^'^.i' 



^ 



ci.S <^.2 



jcti a;.2 






^ Pi> • 

s^ "^^^ 

►C » :aj -g ,2 : 

i>rH 1) CSO 



c3 G 



"^ o 5 

C OJ 03 



03 a; -j: -H_ 3 



+^ C3 
i_ M ^ 



"SJgI 

>G 5f^ 

C "^^ Grf 
5 5-1^ o-»^, 



^ ^ r1 ^ 



o o o JJ 5 ^ 

'^■>'G'> G .-« 

^4 " !h »^ OJ "^ 

01^ a>Q cj'O 

o o'o ||o 

G5^ G 5"' 

O X O) r- 



r£S..-< 



o£G • 

Ph c3 - . 

N CJ O) 

O.rt " cj 

2 G S-'^' 

5 ?= G b 



_ O O 
.73 >; O <u -M 






•St^S-J.^-? -.i-T^i^ s-^i-^g 



V- C3 ? & 



tH o 



iS^- 









« 


^ 


S 


P^ C 


^ 


<5 


;3 P 


P^ 


P4 


f^^ 


S 


p:J 


p:; 


f^ 


?% 


Q 


M 


H = 


S 


J" 


d 


d 


CO 


^ 


1 


CO 


-f 


iH 


J 


1 


"* 


CO 


1-1 


iH 


iH 


iH 


^ 


iH 


CO 


CD 


CD 


CD 


CD 


CD 







CO 


CD 


■CD 


CD 


CO 


CO 


CD 


CD 


CD 


oc 






00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 




00 


00 


00 


00 


cc 


00 


OO 


X' 


00 


1-1 


iH 


tH 




i-i 




.H 


T^ 


tH 


^ 


1-1 


iH 




"-I 


^ 


-^ 


'-' 


1-1 


iH 


cs" 


cd" 


N 


IC 


lO" 


S^f 


o" 


-f" 


c-r 


i-h' 


(>f 


0" 


10" 


ctT 


t-^ 


cT 


1" 


sT 


Ttn" 


tH 


iH 


IM 








CO 


M 










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1 














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0) 
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03 
1-5 




CJ 




cJ 
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fci} 






CJ 



OJ 

cc 


CO 


J" 


^ 


CO 


CO 


^ 


>-l 


oj 


-t< 


J 


J 


1-1 


-* 


00 


^ 


r-j 


^' 


^ 


-H 


^ 


CD 


CD 


CO 


CD 


CD 






CD 


CD 




CD 


CD 


CO 




sS 




i£ 




CD 


ao 


00 


00 


00 


X) 






00 


00 




00 


OC 


00 




00 




» 


■00 


X 


tH 


^ 


-^ 




.-1 


iH 


iH 


.-1 


tH 


1-1 


iH 


1-1 


^ 


rt 


-H 


1-1 


iH 


iH 


1-1 


(>f 


lO" 


(n" 


10" 


s<r 


co" 


0" 


^" 


c-f 


^ 


CD' 


co" 


iC 


c-f 


0" 


VO" 


co' 


lO 


s" 




>-l 


CS 


^ 




(N 


CO 


c-i 






C-4 




rt 


iH 


^ 




tH 




C-) 


iC 





cj 



> 




c7 

GO 


ijj 


o 




4> 


c 


it 


^ 


Sj 


bh' 


if' 


Gh 


-g 


CJ 


ii 


^ 


iz; 


c 


;zi 


^ 


;2i 


CO 


. ^ 


< 


CO 


Q 


■5 


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cc 





'Jl 


^ 




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1 


[ 






1 


s 






\ 


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j 


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5 

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d 






d 

CJ 




6 


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0, 


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9 



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CJ 
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CJ 
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p 


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S 




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73 


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03 

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p 


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p 


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C^ 


2? 


a 


a 


03 


03 


03 


c3 


03 


03 


c3 


03 


cd 


ctl 


03 





03 


^ 


o3 


C' 


c3 


03 


CO 


02 


CO 


CB 


lC 


CB 


Tl 


hH 


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1-1 


cc 


fo 


cc 


CO 


pR 


CO 


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CO 


Ul 














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CJ CJ 
03 03 



tn t. tH 



PL. 


P^ Ph 


;-. 


^ 


P- 


- 


P^ 


P^Ph 


p. 


Ph 


Ph 


Pi 


P-( 


Ph 


P-< 


Ph 


Ph 


PhP. 


P- 






1 'A 


























GO 






















































' .5 




n 










CJ 

tH 

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w 




X 

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d 






H 


t. 

0. 


i i 


\ 


C 


IT 


t 


CJ 


g':3 




r« 




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03 
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CO 


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a. 

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09 



00 :^ :^ 






<^ S 



tH t&( HH 






r-H CJ 



X X X CO 



XX X X XX 



a' 5 d lJ-2^ 



.- P* ^"^ 02 






XXX 



CJH, 
< >^ 

bl aj^cj 
-t: 03 03 



108 



RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 



op" 
-2 Q"^' 



6 m SSRo^ 



Q 






OSS'- 

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"r-. '» 



a2 vo o 






§5^ 



Ooo 

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ocn o 
> -'a 

Oo O 03 



OS " 






CD !- 
"30 Q. 

OJ cS 



15 >■. . 



§si?=: 



03;::^ C 
tS oj O 

o S ^ 

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O ;2 o3 



-> N t; 












^ ^ 



r ?; t; 5 9' C a? 



O o 



ooo 



be 



a>"B,> 



i-To 



a^> -^^l:;^^ 



, o; OJ O 



.Z o 
„&^ 



^ t- '^ rt 

s • oj ^ ■ 






5 . c « 

C+j o o 

0^ M r, 

O „ tc 



ico 



|Z a: „ ^ H-- 



c3 



o3 "5 



„T3 



; Ot2 O^J 



03 0) 



o P3 



^ O) aj UO CfJ -(J 

rt Ch— ' "S '-^ S O 5 OJ 

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21.27^5 



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«-S"i 2-5 S' 



03>-z^ 

r— I (1) +3 O 






CD CO CD 



rH iH C-5 



5^ 



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^2 



fe O 



fqoQ 1-^ 



CD CD CD CO 



iH ?:> iH 



CD CD CD 



O cc CO S? 



CO CD CO CD 



00 00 OO 



CO CO OQ 



bJ3 






CO >2- tn 



2 P^ 



ri o« p_, 
5 r*^ O 

<i fe ;^ 



p5 (-( 

■^ 03 03 03 O 
M CO OQ OO pt( 



C oj 


r^ 


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2 


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lit 


a c 


c 


03 « 


03 


CQCO 


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03 


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03 


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OS 


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> 


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> 


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> 


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^ 


.ci 


CD 


CD 


CDCD 


CO CO 


CO 


CISCD 






CO 




CO CD CD 


coco 


CD 




CD 




X' 


or. 




00 00 


00 


00 


00 CO 






00 




00 CO 00 


00 00 


00 




00 




T-l 




r-l ^ 


T-H T-l 


T-l 


tH 


T-t iH 


1-1 


1-1 1-1 


'"' 


'"' 










■^ 





'^l^ 050i >H 



(M iH T-! iH 1-1 1-1 



be ^< 



P o3 



CJ o 

aj IB 

"c^'o 
03 03 



^^ be 'S fH — "sh f- 'f-i (h be 's^ ^h be be 

o3p p, eS cSpi, c3 jr^^cS ;3 p^ o3pp 



O CJ 

a s 

03 03 

P P 
03 c3 
GOCQ 



02 o3 
C - 



fe fe^S 



bo 'C 
P ft 



c3 



P ft 



fn fi^fn fin f^ fL^P 



p[Hfe fe fn fL< fit 



OD CO CCOQ GO C/3C0 CO CC CE i 



P P 
oi C3 

zczc 



CC' CO CC CO 



OJ 



(U OJ 4) 



^ ^ ^ c3 

> > >> 
ft ft ftft 



^ s t-s 



0) 0) a> 

03 03 c3 

>> > 

'CC 'Si 



ftft ft ftft 



0) QJ OJ 

-w -tJ -1^ 

C3 03 o3 
> > > 



ftft ft ft ft ft 






OJ o 

pp 



P S 

c3|T| 

P . 

- a> 

fp 

o'C! 
PP 



a ft 2-0 

P flj P r^ 



& s p- 

s^ _0 P 



r^ I— I 



, o 



p p s p .a 

P p KW f^H 



-S 1= C3 



p ^^ 



M o 






* pi— o a;' .s >- 
p — ±i .^ ^ ^- 



^^ '-' n 



P^ O 



O W ft ffl ft ft 



FIRST REGIMENT OF CAVALRY. 



127 



X 5R 






Sro 






<^ c: 



.rt 5c •-; ■r-' 

;1h CD pi Pi 



X s 






m O 03 CO 53 

^ S d ? fl 



< < 



2 X 

P 0) 



■'^ S 73 P5 •— CO 

^ a !3 ."S p- CD 



~ X ^' 






^ ^ 



*^ h fe- 



°^°G mp 1^" 



>--S^,®Q 



p M oj ^; 

.2iJ o 



t: S n 












'-I —1 CO 

-r =" 2 tN -h' 



o^^ 



CO co_g 

P 0) 



P,co~ 






&'-' s §,"5 V- ^- 3 -S 5 "S 5 +e o +i S rt _ -te 



. S'3 »r . aT 

Qj £ o 1^ a> y, 
oi^ C'-' <D^ 

CO ^ ^ CO M K 

O oj >-.i-5 Oh3 
g-^ 5 cS n c3 



Ol 0) 



- cS 

03 a S f- 

t So 53 



c +-' o r^ o '- a 
a oi a _i-^ 






j; 6 Si ^ 



? a> '^ 






.a =» 



Q 


■^3 ^ r3 ^ a. 


O 


<i^ a ^ a t' 


5 


S.2|.2 S 


^ 


5 c3 ;£ 03 5; 

a f^ a !-.;£ 



•^ a 



. . « t3 '-' 'C 

2 a a> 2 oj 
+2 o +? +-* '^ -1^ 

03 o a 2 cs 2 



.^'3:1 



S ^a 



i^ -^ i^S r^ _& IZ --. -^^ 

oas>-H'w'-g*^:p5rt 
a ^ 



a^i^o'g'S'Sa 
2^ a'S'S " ° 



- ^ ^ g g 5 



-« 32 to i 03 
+J <1; Oi -^ ^ 



a .^i f^ 
5 ?^ S 



CD CO CD CO CD CO 



IC -H ^ 



<J o 



1^ g 

CO . o3 

S'> a 

=3=«n 

a -^-* -^ 
5 a> a aj 

a 0J.2 "i"' 

52 "S S 

o a tn a 



&: a 



iH 


.ri 


10 10 


; 


.ri 


J 


.'^ 




J 


J 


.-I 


>ri 




J 


J 


ScOCD 


J, 


iH 


d i 







coco 


CO 




CD 




CO 


CO 




CD 




CO 




CD 




CO 


«) 




00 00 


00 




00 




00 


X 




00 




00 




00 


QC' 00 00 




00 








>-l tH 




iH 


tH 


i-H 


i-t 


■H 


'-I 


>-( 




"-t 


^ 


I-l 


tH tH T-H 


— ' 


iH 


tH ' 


lO 


c^ 


tH Oi 


IC 


CO 


10 


^■~ 


10 


in 


'^^ 








10 


lO 


Tfl 


00 100 





la 


00 1 


rH 




COC-1 


r-i 






C^ 


r^ 


iH 


<M 


1-1 


tH 


iH 


T-l 


(N 


iH tH 


^ 


.H 




bn 


^^ 


u u 


hn 


;h 


bn 


^^ 


bn 


bf) 


bO 


br 


!h 


br 


bn 


br, 


tH be be 


"C 


bU 


b 


a 


ft 


a 03 


-J 


a 




03 


a 


a 


a 


a 


ft 


a 


a 


a 


^ ai a 




a 


03 ' 


<1 


^ 


ss 


<1 


^ 


<i 


^ 


^ 


-^ 


^ 


-< 


< 


^ 


<l 


<1 


^<^^ 


<1 


< 


^ : 


1 




: ; 


; 


i 


; 


I 


; 


; 




I 


I 




! 


; 


1 1 1 




: 


; I 



CO CD --O » 
00 00 00 00 



CO CO CO 



1-1 ^3C<1.-I i-li-li-liHC-lr-li-l^^lM --IrH 1-i 

bb "C i-^ !-<■ bii 'C bJb Sh' bi) bb bib be 's^ bi; bb bb f^ bi) bJD 'S 

aft^^afta'^aaaaftaaa"'3aa ft 



be tH ^■ 
S 03 p 









o^- 








CJ 





" c3 


CJ 


CJ 






.i'r^ 

















CJ 


c^ 





a 


a 


a 




a 




<s 










tH 


tH 


tH 




tH 


P^ 


ta 


t^'-J 


t=^ 


tlH 


f^ 


a 


a a 


a 


a 


c3 


03 


03 03 


03 


03 


C/J 


Oi 


COCC 


C/J 


C/J 



S H ^Q} 



a a a a a 

^ ^ ^ ^ cj 



ft, H-5 fi^ fLH fq pL, 

a a a a a a 



CQ CQ CO 02 CQ CO 












_; 


c 








03 iJ 








c3.2.2 








CJ 


CJ 


CJ 




a 


a 


a 


•oTa a 


03 


crt 


n( 


m 03 o3 


tH 






tH tH 


1=^ 


ta 


1=^ 


>-5fefe 


a 


a 


a 


a a a 


ert 


m 


03 




O! 


CO 


09 


mmm 



S su r 



CO 00 CO 



CM CLi 



f4 0-1 Ph 



Pi Pi Ph 



W J 



^ ■^. 



O be- 
en j3 

.2<1 



? a a 2 



o a 



M i-H h-i =3 ca oj 



S n •£. .5 =3 



h-s •« oe -H 






r^ 


:^ 


1 


r- 


." 


p 


rt 






C3 


;s 







_r 


03 




'tf 


P^ 


.7J 


bn 




r;^ 


W 




^ 


a 

03 


^ 


^ 


;^- 


>i 


- 


rH 


> 


^ 


o3 


0^ 



U! bii w W W W W 



^ 


^ 


M -- a 


03 




_a; a 5 


a 


a 
be 
a 
<1 






x:::^- 
0^^^ 


►^ 




>; -tj" 




OJ 


c a 


bo 


bi; 


Pi " be 
•^ be. a 






rj 


03 


000 


hJ 


U 


hJJhJ 



I ^ 



128 



RECOKD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 






■i-A ° 






■S S 






ft ^ -d 



S 03 





J- 


> ^ 


o 


c3 £ a 


> 


-w CD a 

s » ■; 


^as 


^rtls 


^f^- 


OS ^ o 




PhOS Q, 


0:« ° 


s^ T; 


<U fl OJ 

^ o ^ 








SS rf 2 


$=^^3 


^ s 


P^ t 





t* 


^ 




oT 


f3 


fi 




^ 


o 








o 


5 


o 
o 


<£ 

0) 

o 


> 


c3 
OS 












P 


-s 


c;) 




a 




;? 




O 


fi 


a 


iH 


03 


s 


CS 


CO 


O 


O 


o 




§ 




o 


















QJ 




QJ 












CJ 




HI 


^ 


r/) 


o 


_) 


a 


p 


p 












t/J 




!«=< 




r^ 



■^ 72 o CS 

CO '-' 3^ a 

• a >^ ? +^ 

a oi O ° rH_ 

o i o « . 2 g 

r^lc ? <i> OS a^ 

H 



H S S 






^< oj d 

. ot-i a^ 
a^°°^ 

•r' X tc.ij S 



- CO _ij cs CO se 



com 

CO CO 
^ 00 

coor 



» _r S 00 ^ ' 
CO -^,^53 ^.* «s 



00 . " ^ 



S "^ ri 



^^ rf) nri ^^^ • 



a» 

?;^0 



oiTS 



CO COCO—; 



C Q) li 

< M :3 



fH c3 
■03 (p 

a c5 

Sh O 

fift 

cS 03 



,^ StI cS OS OS 



-V^ 



^ ogpq_ofq ^ 
"§ j; a 2 oj p^ 

^::ofi-ft^ 

O O+i^j p. 



3d 

00 
--^ o 

CO ^ 
pTT 

^1 



C3 OS 



•"■^-c 



QQ 



S"J2 oj O) S 1* S'S 
S PQPQfi^ 



5 ^ 



^ ® 2 
PQ c;-cl 

a r^ « 

<-, on'" 

: .^a 

P Q. p=4-l 
^O ^§ O 

OJ-r" 03.3 



CO CO CO CO CO CO 



CO CO CO CO CO CO 

00 oc 00 oo 00 00 



lO CO UO 00 



^ O vO iH 



IC iC 05 lO - 



to CO Tt( Tt< ic gi "* 

.-I (M (N (N --H W C^l 



p-g PPhP^cS ftp ftgp ftppcspp poS^esp OS p 



p ft ppcspp poSS^esp 



iH lO i-H lO 



cocococococococo 

X 00 CO 00 



•H lO C^It— t lO tH.— (lOt— !T-i tHVC^HiO' 



CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO 
0000X0000 XX XXX X 






O-^ rH 



•* ■* Oi M< ^ '^t* CO "* ^ ■* X 






<5 <l 



ft p 



'C 'be !h 6jd be !-< b£ bjj be Sh jj ^ io u be 

ft "^P ft ppoSpp poSQ^rap i3i ^ 



o a> 
.So 



^- ^ o ^ 



Ul Ul Ul J--, 



pt^ fH fe ^ 

C S P c 



^1 ^< C/J C/J t/J 



CJ o 
c« 03 



03 fe 1-5 
f^ _ _ 
o P P 



mmaiuymmmmm 



pt<&H Ei^ 



ITi Xfl Xtl ^ VI 

'o'o'G'ci'cj 

R P P C P 

^ ^ 03 (^ c3 

^ ;-, ;h !.4 !-. 

p c p S p 

OS 03 03 03 03 



m J; 
O o3 
p p 



O CI 

p p 

03 03 



p p 



Pufefflfe&H fe fe 



iCOQO CO CO 



^H ti !-< 



p^PHPL|FL|P^P^P^&^pl^ PnCLi Pn 



c3c3o3o3o3 cSoScScScS 

pm^iPHfLiPLi phCliPhPhd^ 



% % 



o 

1-5 


w 


a 


03 

p 




a 


_,7 


o 


1-5 


!>» 


H 


OS 

1^ 














03 
P 
O 


2 


P 
P 

c3 


g 

S 




2 


P 


H 


O 


OS 


c 


CJ 


O 


CJ 


CJ 


• fH 




s 


g 


s 


§ 


S 


^ 






P r-H (-( 



;^ s^ 



• P 



■^^ P"C 



T30 
OS P 



^-pi-s 



P P 



S ci 



OPPPP P P 



FIRST REGIMENT OF CAVALRY. 



129 



^ Ttl 



CS rH ^ 



1 s 



CO 



rH >^ 



co"^ 



CO CO t; 



^2 bi) M 






be 






Q - 

CO 

^ 03 



<1^ << 



^, ^.;i 



S.fc 



OJ 



o3 o o3 O f^ 

''• rf -, rf j^ _j 



g > tu 

=^ »= c3 5 

cS O C Q 

lJ - cS" 



P I-:: n 



0)2 en ''S* 

i ^ ^^"^ <uo 

O . I — ' C5 O 

2 ^W-:; o ^ ? 



5 s:2 o 



o; 



o pO o o o ^ 

C ^ r< 1^ , 

tH _, t- '43 in "43 C 

CJ-g O) 03 0) C3 



s g p 



O =*^ 03 
1— I T^ ^ t' 



«c3-tio3-*^c3-tiC' 

'' " O tS t^S g 



C'T^ on c^ 



c 

! O 



o a; o a;t c3 
■1 -tj +i +j p. 



.is a) 0) o =* 






1^ HP PS 



g -t^ 5 ci3 

03+! C W 
^ c3 oi 

►^- d O oj 
C c3=Ch =2 

^+^ ?f ^ o 

o ^ '^ '^ a> a» 

s: g o ft'S C3 



+5 •- lOCO 

p,& 

U 0) 
GOOD' 



O .-; 

cox ^ 

■00r-l,H 
'-I ..CO 



'^ o OO 
■^ m - - 

::^ i: ^ 

<qt(-( c3 c3 
o .pqcq 

G 0) .-;?! c3 C3 
« ; bOo) 0) 



®^ bt bb 

go r J 

C o3Q (DO 5 

7^ a ^ !» 

PccP op o 

03 C3 03 r o3 F 



-M +i +j OJ 

O O CtM 

^-^^^ 
Oi oj a> 2 

tn !- f- J^ 

-u ■« +j 42 

M tn _* 



4J OJ 

"1^.2 



(D m r^ .— r- iM I— 

ppss;^ § 



J 


iH 


i-l 


lO 


>H 


Oq vO 


J 


J 


^ 


J 


1-1 lO 


lO lO 


coS 


J 


J 


idJidJJ 


rH 




® 


CO 




CO 








CD 


CO 


COCO 


coco 








CO 




CO 


OO 


» 


00 








00 


OO 


00 00 


00 00 


00 00 






00 00 00 X » 


00 


rH 


iH 


y-t 




rH 


1-H 1-1 


iH 


iH 


iH 


tH 


iH iH 


rH rH 


rH rH 


rH 


rH 




rH 


lO 


ic" 


lO" 


co" 


lO" 


I^TiH 


gf 


oo" 


lO" 


lo" 


lo'c^r 


gf55~ 


lo'co" 


t-^ 


rlT 


o^co^f-^co'io" 


sf 


i-H 


tH 


iH 


iH 


iH 




iH 


'"' 


1-1 


iH 1-1 


T-i rH 




IM 


(M C^^ Cq rH rH 


N 


tH 


bb 


bb 


^ 


bb 




u 


^h' 


bb 


'oh 


bb"n 


f-i' ^.' 


bbS 


*s-. 


t^ 


;-<■ !-■ !h' • bb 


^t 


03 


3 




o3 


J3 


a 


03 





!3 


p. 


03 o3 


3^ 


r^ 


03 


03 03 c3-g p3 




g 


^ 


^ 


§ 


<1 


S 


g 


< 


<l 


« 


gS 


^ 


g 


^^%%o< 


< 


J 


.-1 


tH 


lO 


1-H 


C<1 IC 


J 


lO 


y-t 


J 


^ id 


vd id 


COCO 


J 


lO 


iC IC lO r^ rH 


J 




cc 


CO 


CO 


CD 


CD CD 




CD 


CO 


CO 


CD CO 


CD CD 




CO 


CD CD CO CD' CD 






30 


OC' 


00 


00 


X 00 




00 


00 


00 


00 00 


00 00 


00 » 




00 


t» 00 00 00 00 




tH 


iH 


rH 


1-1 


i-H 


iH iH 


iH 


1-1 


iH 


iH 


1-1 rH 


rH i-i 


rH rH 


rH 


T^ 




'-^ 


lO" 


T«r 


Tt^" 


co' 


Tt<'~ 


C^"^" 


S'^ 


^ 


-*" 


-*<" 


'^"c-f 


CO^r-T 


-^'co" 


^ 


^ 


rn'oo't-^co"'*" 


sT 


T-l 




l-( 




iH 




C-; 




iH 


^ 


1-1 i-( 


<M (M 


1-i y-l 




(M 


rH Cvl !^^ rH rH 


(N 


t^ 


bb 


s^ 


53 


y^ 


r-* '^* 


^ 


c 


bJD 


bb 


bb'C 


^ ;h 


bbS 


^ 


t^ 


!h' ^h' 1^ • bb 


bb 


S 


3 




c3 




II 


e3 


a 




s 


? P- 


03 ^ 


^1 


^ 


c3 


03 03 03+^ ;3 




g 


-I^ 


■§ 


g 


< 


S 


g 


^ 


^ 


<j<j 


SS 


< 


g 


gg^O^ 


< 


o 


o 


o 


q 


o 


d ' 






d 


d 


o o 


d_; 


d d 






1 ■ lo 1 

^ o o o 


6 


o 


o 


O 


o 


O 


r- CJ 


ci 


CCS 


O 


o 


o o 


■^ 03 


t> O 


c3 


o3 


^ o c;> M o 


Cj 


_!C 


• rH 


CO 


CO 


CO 


c;.2 


O 


o 


CO 


CO 


CO CO 

.1— .rH 


.2o 


CO CO 


u 


o 


0.2.2 aJ.22 


CO 


'o 


o 


o 


'o 


'cj 


c3 O 






'o 


'o 


o o 


o \, 


'o'o 






_c; CJ"^ o 
vo) S S be S 


'o 


!3 


q 




fl 


S 


C C 


\(p 


voT 




rH 




rH VO) 




Vq7 


\a) 


C3 


03 


o3 


s 


03 


c3 


JTi ?^ 


CO 


CO 


c3 


c3 


S 3 


c3 CO 


3 c3 


CO 


CO 


» 03 c3 i- .-a 


03 


!-< 


^H 


;h 




;h 


a* f-* 


Q 


o 






!.H ;h 


>H o 


S-, tH 


o 


o 


o •- iH "n fH 


^ 


P^ 


fCH 


^ 


fa 


fa 


Wfa 


>-i 


>-5 


fa 


fa 


fafa 


faH^ 


fafa 


^ 


H^ 


h-5 p:^ fiH <; 6h 


fa 


a 


c 


fl 


fl 


c 


c s 


c 


c 


f3 


g 


c e 


c c 


s c 


c 


fl 


C C C =0 fl 


g 


03 


03 


03 


03 


Oj 


c3 03 


03 


c3 


03 


03 


03 o3 


c3 03 


03 03 


03 


03 


c3 03 03 q 03 


. tS 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


cc 


C»CQ 


CC 


CO 


02 


CC 


02 CC 


COCO 


aim 


CO 


OQ 


COOQOQpCO 


CO 



o a> 0) ai 0) 



^ Ph Ph Ph Ph 



;r ^ ^ 



P^ Ph Ph Ph 



PhPhPhPhPh Ph 



S p 2 b 



Ph PM Ph 



' 


C4 


;^ 


1 


^ 


' CO 


>, 


^ 


X 2 












0) 


Ph 


C 03 

r- ^H 


w 




"cfa 








_r 


c3 


ID 








Oh 


^ 


'O r7 








c3 




O).;:; 


PI 


p:^ 


pcjpcl 



Ah <u rC r-i _-..^ 



"c^ Ph 



fa 



rS W 



tf CB 



CO o3 

C 03 

03 j::; 
CO 02 



J fa 

C o3 
-Q 

X r 

Oj3 
CJ -JJ 

.ss 

mm 



.-of 

bcc 

fi ^H 

mm 



c3 o 
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bC i-i 



CO CO 



rH '^ J CO M 
3 ^ r^ ^'^ 

4g«o^ 

3 c3 O !- C 



130 



RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 





=2 


'S^ ^ 




n1 ^S-d 






'^r 


b-i 00 - ►> oc ,-:: 


03 a> 




X 


00 .Ci'^ ?* Cj O 


|m 1 
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it 

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142 



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143 



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SCO 




^ 


?5' 


0) c - 
Ph (d<N 


w 


> 




• 


cu g >, 


c3 


cS 
Q 




^^6 


3 =«P^ . 


a 




■^ 


bi+i 


■« r o 




lO 






o" "^ • 




CD^ 
X yj 


6 


r^ 


c)'~';z;S 






^ 


'^.S 


" N oT ^ 




^o 


3 


^S 


■3 Jfe.j^ 




-d d 




oTp 


-73 T3 CO "S 






3' 

13 


fed 




C.2 


OJ 

o 


^2 


-2g§S 




c^,5 




pLi 


PhPh 


u 


; ; 




; 


; ; 


2 


CO IC' 






jg3 




CDCD 




CO 


3 


X X 






X X 


1— ( 1— ( 




1-t 


l-( ^ 


s 












iH t^ 








t4-< 










o 










OJ 


> "^ 




f^ 


^ ^ 


s 






cj 






CO in 




CO 


Co'-t< 




CD CD 




CD 


CO CD 


.^ a 


X X 




X 


XX 


o 5 


T-l tH 




.H 


1-1 ^ 


|B 










X X 




X 


CDiH 


"S.s 


^ ?M 




C-l 


1-1 


^G 


-*. o 




'^ 


>.^ 


w 


0) <1> 






"3 3 




fep^ 




■^^ 




' 1 






• ^ 




1 *— H 






i c3 




,r<( 






jO 


-»j 


— <'!^ 






o »r 




CJ . 

S 2 






S c3 


S 


1^ 






Si; 


^ 


[ [ 




-tj 


[ [ 


S 


C G 




S3 


S 






ID 


<D cy 


Ph 


c3 cj 














3 


'►33 














cj cj 




r-i 


i-i 1-1 




;' I 






i i 




c ^ 




>i 


C3 1 




V2 




OJ 


rG ' 


g 
< 


C&H 




f-< 


11 


^; 






^ 


-^« 








oi 


(^ 73 




?". 3 














1 


ss 




p^s; 




Q 


CK'CC 



152 



RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 





la 

o 


a) 

T-H 


1-1 










CD 




C3 

tH 

'Sh 




c5 

tH 
•rH 


CD 




^3 


_co 

tH 


cS 




d-i 

ra 03 




0) 


a 
y, 

03 




cS 

tH 


03 




c-t? 


a> 


?f 














r<! 




^'^ 








o 


H 




-w , 












X 








;-H 




cd" 




cd" 




00 




(D 




<D 


00 




*a 


W^ 


03 




■5g 




co' 




CD 




03 


CO 




^ 


ci 


o 








CD 




i-( 










rH 














CO 














^r-, 




>^ 






00 








S2 










(-1 








00 




00 
















Ti 


o 


h-S 


1-1 




iH 
O 




CO 




CD 
00 
iH 




1 


co' 




03 

cd" 


T^ 


1 




j^'rH 




rH 




iH 




rH 


CiO 




> 








oq 




(M 












si 


't^ 




CD 








rH C<l 








(M 










cS 


a 




TI^ 










Oh 




■^ 




5S =^ 


CIh 




CO 


Tj 


S 
















CD 






Q 


•c 


T 


Qi 


^^ 




^ 




*< 




C<1 






< 




rH 


Sf 






rH -^i 


>, 


rb 




b?j 


<^ 




.-ICD 

cioo 


M) 


iC 


h^ 




'^ 




l^j" 




c3 




-nsa 


l«H 




CO 


<\ 






t[J~^ 




^ 




h^. 




l-H 
O3" 

Ph 

cS 

3 

CO 

ts 


1.^ 


a 
p5 


^'1 


It 
P^ 

g 

3 


■ a 
brP 


1-1 ?:i 

o 


a5 

tH 


Ph. 


CD 

o 

rH 
> 

tH 


IZh' 

tT 

a. 
a 

CO 


CD* 
Ci 

> 
CO 


:^' 

cd" 
ci- 

3 

CO 

cS 


cd' 


^cd"^ 
Oi-i r 

i^rH-g 

So oT 
CO .Ph 


tT 

CD 

a 

2c» 


<D 

C 

> 

tH 

03 

CO 


oT 


3 


Ph 

c3 

+i 

3 

OD 
ci 


C3 


oi'cS 


03 


03' 
p^ 

c3 


~ 03 
03 


03" 

Ph 

OS 


3 

03 
> 

tH 


'pi 

03 0> 
03 rH 03 




CO 


p. 
S 

o 


3 1 !N s "p 


^ C aj C c« 

-Bco o02 c 

1— ( ,, tH tH 


tH o 

o ^ 


a 
o 


rH "^ 






03^ 
C3+^ 

> 3 


> 

s 

to 

o 


Ph -^ 

t^co 
3 +i 

CO OS 


O 

CC 

O 


c 
CC 

c: 


03 

to 


cc'o 
■Sa 


> 

03 f:< 

*H^ S 

C +J 'hh 




o 


o 


u 






CD 




OJ 










iD ,_^ +i 














-H» -^j 







a 




03 




a+^j^ 






>Z P 


r- j; O 

SO.: 


c 2 fe 


o 


Ovh 
0) rH 

S.2 


o 

CD 
ti 
CD 




o ^ 

CD rH 


2^° 

o o g 


tH a 

CD o 

O g 

a '^ 


o 
a 

o 


r; t« '■'H j; tH 
O Ors o^ 

rr- rH 03 ._- 

5355:aS3n 


°5 

SI 


c 


c 

p 
a 


ttH 


03 
03 


^ 


p 

0) 


1 ° 

oil 
a '^ os 




£ 




l§l 


tH 






m 


p 




c 


rH rH ^ 

O O s 

tH tH ^ 

PhPh,^ 


o1o 

5 a 


&a 0.2' 


S to 

03 a 


c 


to t« 


tH 


T. 

a 


tH 


to 

a 


cS 

tH 


ct 


K.i: 
;2 a Ph 




Ph 




Ph 


p-l;z;pa^g 




g 




1 




"1 




S 




S 


P 


S 




SI 




S 




S 




s 


^ 




cJ 




CO 


S i 


\J \ 




CO 




CO 




CO 




COCO CO 
Cisco CO 


J 




CO 


4 


CO 




COCO 




CO 




cJ 






J 






















CO 












CD 




















§ 

g 








X < 














00 




00 CO CO 










00 




00 00 
















^ 




" 




1 1-( 1 




'"' 




'-I 




iH 




rH 1-1 ^H 


'-' 




rH 


'-' 


'" 




rH rH 




rH 




"-• 






rH 


t— T 




co~ 


-* ' 


; lo" ' 




(n" 




i-T 




t-^ 




O^rH^rH" 


^■~ 




rn" 


rH" 


o" 




cd"© 




C 




0" 






rH*" 


o 










' ""^ 1 












'-I 




C-1 










■M 




N C^) 




(M 




(M 








s 

P 






C3 




'i"3 1 
;&H ; 




►^ 








CD 

a 

•-5 






>> 




>1 

cS 




6 
Q 




,^■0. 

a ^ 




C 
Oh 
P 




0* 

03 

P 










el's 




[ 


11 


— H Ot. ?C 




Ci^ 




^^ 




CO 




CO CC CO 


CO 




CO 


CO 


CO 




CO CO 




CO 




J 




CO 


cJ 








S 


CO mOCDX> 




CD 








CD 




CO CD CO 


CD 




CD 








cccc 




CD 








CD' 




^ fl 


s 




00 


00 CO COCO 00 




CO 








CO 




CO 00 00 


00 




00 








00 X 




00 








00 




^1 


tH 




iH 


.H 1-1 


1-1 iH iH 




1-1 




T-i 




iH 




1-1 rH rH 


iH 




rH 


rH 


rH 




rH rH 




rH 




^ 




rH 


rH 


^" 




^•~ 


,-r-+'~ai'tc~i-o' 




o-f 




'0 




cd" 




c^Tio'c^r 


CO' 




o" 


CO" 


ai~ 




C^fl> 




Oi 




^ 




co"" 


c<r 


o3 ^ 






T-( 


(M (^^ ,-( c-i 
















irHlN 






CO 


IM 






<N 








C-) 








0-3 
























































>, 




p-^ 


^•_>; 


•r* ' >v 




>> 




'Jh 




>J 




>. t: 't: 


'tH 




^ 


;^ 


^ 




>-.>i 


>-. 


>> 




bi) 


't^ 


S 








S3 






3 

1-5 




^ 




cj 






^ 




ci 


OS 


>-5 




9 a 

H-5l- 




1 




H? 




-< 


< 




o 






tH 1 
f^ 1 














"3 






i i 






; 


J 






; 








; 




i 




■si 


cu 




'd 


^ 


1 c d 

1 o O 




d 

CJ 




'rt 




o 




S c3 c3 


'3 




"3 


"3 

Q 


d 

C3 




d^ 




c 

Cr 




d 

C3 




d 


"3 


o 2 

<i>a 


^ 




O 


^T 1 


' CO CO 

1 •*-« •rH 




CO 




O 




'S 




.2200 


o 




o 


03" 


to 




.£c 




t/" 




CO 




.S 


Q 






CD 1 


1 o o 




'G 












C" ., .- 








'C3 




03 








'0 




y 




Si 


Ti 




^ 


fl ' 


' as 




a 




rH~ 




Ph 




s a a 


a" 




rT 


r— t 


a 




rH ^ 




a 




a 






rH 


s 




P^, 


r2 ' 


: fs =« 




C3 




O 








c3 o O 


o 




O 


'> 


c3 




5 5 




c: 




cS 




3 


Q, 




S 


2 I 


tH tH 




fe 




S 




"n 




tH ^ ,L^ 


^ 






to 


tH 

Ph 




fe5 




t- 
pi 




Ph 




fe 


,S 


c 






CO 1 


1 c c 








CJ 

O 




N 




-, V u 

a o o 


o 




o 




S 




3c 




p 




r^ 




r^ 


03 





c3 








1 c3 <S 




s 




-tJ 




tn 




c3-iS is 








W-H 


CS 




cS^:; 




0: 




CS 




C3 






O 




OQ 


fe ; 


\ijim 




CO 




OQ 




O 




coccoo 


s 




s 


fS 


CC 




cccc 




CC 




CC 




CC 


W 












iJJ 




"J 




i 




J 




























.' 




; 


I 












'fl c 








































































































,y 










' a, c3 




ci 




cS 




cS 












' 














' 




' 


' 










-iJ CD a) 




CD 




(D 




CD 


















-iJ -k^ 








->J 








S 


l-f 




^ 


P !3 


pi btoc 




bC 




OB 




bn 




a a a 


c 




r^ 


r^ 


r^ 




a a 




p 




a 




a 


OS 


o3 


C* 




<D 


CD Qi 


t>^ ^^ 




tH 




t< 








C3 c5 cj 


c3 




ci 


r^ 


c3 




OS o: 




0: 




cS 




cS 


r; 


Ph 










.S o a; 




CD 




0) 




<D 




CD a; <D 


a; 




Oi 


03 


03 




03 0. 




a 




03 










h3 




^ 


;J■^3H:;coco 




CE 




CO 




02 




bT; bi' be 


bJD 




?? 


bJD 


bt) 




bCbJ 


) 


bj 


) 


be 




be 


^ 








S 


_, ^ -^ -1^ += 

T3'C T) cc to 
(M (M <M 1-1 .-1 




03 




l-( 




rH 




s s s 


tH 

CD 
CO 




CO 


tH 

OJ 
CO 


tH 

o 
CO 




tH f- 

<S 0. 

cccc 




r- 
0, 

CC 




3 

CO 




3 

CC 















i i i 




>j 
























1 












I 




.2 


! 




jj 








1 1 1 












-p 
















3 

CO 












j 




03 




§ 






1 fl 


\ \ 1 




> 




rH 




s 




oj ' a 








^ 


*^ 












1 




a 




H 
g 

<; 
^ 


3 




w 
s 

> 


c O CO 1 1 




s 

y 
I— 1 

a 
y, 

CD 




s 
< 

a 

'o 

►-5 




"bb 

W 
3 

o' 

5 




£ 
c 

c 
p: 


11 

coP 

P^-g 

■<i 3 

03 tH 

OPh 


1-5 




03 

ba 

o 

OJ 

O 


.5 
Q 

o 

3 

1-5 


to 
'S 

03 




a '^ 

tC' k3 

r2't 

.a ce 
OP- 








0) 

"3 

5 




p 
f3 


Ph 

•rH 

3 



P^IRST REGIMENT OF CAVALRY. 



153 



•^ ■?!■?! '~ 



;ii^o 



S^.J 



« CO © 



2S 






& W 



.-co" "3 53 U 



iC Of 



< < 






^2^ 











in 


o 


.H 


<>) 


no 


sr 


-^ 




-M 


<1 


^ 



tH CO i- 



fto 



.''^ ^ i; 



G ?S ^ 



00 c3 



P 2 



f^ 2 r "^S 



^. s 



1 .iz; !zi ^z; "o^z; S S^ 



\~ ci 






5 O 



V^ W r =^ 






&">f^gfe 



=s c; 



. aj ,• " 0/ 






fe 



■ O O r~" 



-(J ^^-f +j 

J; O C 
_ O ^ c3 

oa5.^i»:|l|cEt^ ^cc/^fe Sec. 

3 -M 



m tH ^ 



03 V 






.2 a" ^"'^ . 

PI O CS -Urrt 

^5-2t^ S "== fi 

""^^t^ ^ ^ o 

-gp 



j: t, -^ ^H r- G 



*< >-; 



rri 




t-( 


s 


O 


'■ 


1-1 




!>- 


3 




J2; 


.- 


a; 


-p 


t!^ 


O 


rrl 






c 


C 


o 


03 



;z; 



o t^ o S o 



c 53 w s 
5 1; 'xJ o 



„ C3-P c: 



=1; cirh 



■wc;-w-*H-t^S+^ .fiH-<^?;S^ci-»-' 



TT. a; O C 

.P ;= 2co- 



CC ,S !m CO >i 

g 00 .O O cS 

03 : _ 00 c3 ,• 
i C3 „a.' C3 to".^.^ 



S -^ 



»T3- 



r; CD cj a> 



tr -t-3 ^ C^ q; 1 



..;:5 - ~ c3 S . - cs 



iS-OT?^^ 



p -^ ";5 'C 





o 
^ 

o 


c3 


CO 







03 


>- 


O 


— - 


, 


^— 




^^_, 


T3 


— 


'-' 


'C 


,-" 


r 


^ 


r, 


-T, 




^ 




<:::' 


O 






S o 5 i^- 






P2 S 2 









52° 
51 



.2>^.2 =^^ So 
Q fig PS 



■o X S .- Z X X o7- U. - y; 

P2 PPPPP^ P 



rH 


CD 
00 

1-1 


CO 
CO 
X 


» 


CO 
X 


r-l ^ 


OO 


CO 

1-1 


CO 

1-1 


CO CO 


CO 


a 

X X 

^ 1-1 


CO CO 
CD CD 
X X 
i-l tH 


iH ^ 


CO CC CO COCO CO 

coco :ocD xico 

X X X X X X 
iH i-( rH 1-1 1-1 iH 


iH 


i-i 


T-l 


tH 


55 


?? 


S 


§?S 


1-1 


s 


1-1 


^S 


-^ 


iH iH 


rH X 


^R 


rH^g^iHg 


1-1 


^ 


Oj 








CJ 


cj ci 

OP 




cj 

p 


>> 

03 
2 


I^P 




^2 


>.bii 

03 '^ 
S<1 


2p 


03 c3 03 03 c3 g 


oi 
<5 




; 


I 




1 


1 


1 1 


i 


\ 


1 


; 1 


; 


1 1 


1 1 


1 ', 


1 ! 1 ! ! ! 


1 


1 



CO CO CO 



CO CO '-^ '■C' 



coco coco coco cocococococo 



CD CO CO CO 



CO CO CD CO CD CD 



XX XX X X X X X X 



t^ OJ iH lO 









_Q ^ ac M _^- _^ ej; 



4-^ 



O CO X iH CO 

—I iH (M (N C<l 

t, ri %* U>^ 

p. ^ p. Cuo3 

<^ -^ <1 <1§ 



CO X ox 






o3 12 "^03 



c^ '^ C3 c5 c3 c3 





"3 
















I ; 




; 






: : ! : : 




i 




-^ 


1 










■■_:. 




; ' 




i_ 




■ 03 


"3 i 1 1 1 ^^ 




r^ 


cS 




'^ 










CJ 




- 


03 


58 


1^ 


■r"^ 
13^ 




iC; 


„• ^- ^- _; ^ 
-:« 03 ci c3_.j 


' 'S 


^ 






3 


3 


3 


3 


'o'o 

3 3 


c 


% 1, 


^"2 

> 3 









c3 


«3 ^OOQQcS 

0>, r-iOOOOt. 







.2 


^ 


p 


fe 


P^ 


h^ 


fefe 


rii 


Tj 




.!i 






o3^,i^^^ N 


^ 


P 


CJ 












C 


K 




c3 C 





Ih 


_, 


CJ K 


^ Cj Cj CJ c< 









p 










r 









c3 


s 


OT' 


i' T 






































aj 


C/J 


'OJ 


C/J 


mm 


a 


'■^ 


<; 


f^'Jl 


MJ 


CO< 


mm 


mO 


mmmmmO 


GO 


;xH 


"3 


"03 


"3 "e 



































S^ -^ -^ !^ U 

ccooo - _- 

C— ' f— f-H ^ f^ 7-t fcr, '^f 



Q O Q O 



t. t- 


^ 




ti 







<U (D 


QJ CP 


0/ 


2J 








-1^ -Vi 






-|J->^ 














ci c3 




03 c3 


03 e3 


C3 03 


03 03 o3 03 03 03 




r* 




> > 


> 


> > 


> > 


> > 


>>>>>> 
































%^ ^ 










fc 


&H 


m 


!^!^ 


^ 


PhOh 


Dh^ 


PmOh 


P^PhP-iPl^PhSh 



tc jj _-« 



O " CJ T. - 



?. i^ ^ 



^ 2 



ii .2 ^ 
o ?: a 





'p^ 


P 


C' " 









:rj 


rt 


m p 


-c 







^ 


&^'X 


w 




c ='j 


rH 





a> 1 










w 1 






1 H-2 1 1 1 














r §^' 


rC^ 


■ mi 


- 03 C oa 3 


^ 












:> F==;.j; 


3^»-5 


^H -S 


©"p't;^^^ ^ 





a ^ 



ri .-. dJ 



^ 2 



^ ^ 






<1<1 



tZ c3 



^T3 

So 



« 



o s 

-M (1) 

tH c3 

03 <0 



fi o 

2,fi ^ <1> 

,2 o 00 

Ma5 MM 



SS5r!r> S 



o p 

OQ 



E^^^in-:- 



-co 

MM 



-3 Ph 



MM a o 



154 



RECOKD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 



30 „ 



i r'S 

. .^ o 

;.. O ra 



fl Oi c3 



tu 


S S 


^ 




'-I .— < 




1, 1865. 
May 5, 
1, 1865 
ril 12, 


(3 

o 


pt. 1 

Oct. 
,Ap 




cg^.^^S 



.^ !^ 



P-l '-' tH " 



<N ^' 






d-^ 



t. a.2W^ 
-2 '^ ^ « ^ 









- a « 



',^r°^ o 



o o-S^ '^ 



?Ti M^ &P^Ti 



'^t^'i?---- 



aj-;i r; - — i _2^ 



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168 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 



THE SECOND REGIMENT OF CAVALRY. 



This regiment was organized under the President's second call upon 
the State for troops, for which see page 12. The call was dated Wash- 
ington, August 14, 1861, and by October 30, 1861, the regiment was organ- 
ized and mustered into the service. 

The companies were first assembled at Camp Alert, San Francisco, 
which was located on the ground now inclosed by Mission, Folsom, 
Twenty-fourth, and Twenty-sixth Streets, then known as the Pioneer 
Race Track. 

The first Colonel of the regiment was Andrew J. Smith. His record 
in the army is as follows: Born in Pennsylvania; Cadet United States 
Military Academy, July 1, 1834; graduated, and appointed Second 
Lieutenant First United States Dragoons, July 1, 1838; First Lieuten- 
ant, March 4, 1845; Captain, February 16, 1847; Major First Cavalry, 
May 13, 1861; Colonel Second California Cavalry, October 2, 1861; 
resigned November 13, 1861; Lieutenant-Colonel, Fifth United States 
Cavalry, May 9, 1864; Colonel Seventh Cavalry, July 28, 1866; Briga- 
dier-General of Volunteers, March 17, 1862; Major-General, May 12, 
1864; honorably mustered out of volunteer service, January 15, 1866; 
resigned his rank in regular army, May 6, 1869; reappointed Colonel 
United States Cavalry, January 5, 1889; retired January 25, 1889. 
General Smith took part in all the great battles in the West. 

Columbus Sims was the second Colonel of the regiment, and served 
as such from November 13, 1861, to January 31, 1863. He was suc- 
ceeded by Colonel Geo. S. Evans, from February 1, 1863, to May 31, 
1863, when he resigned. He was afterwards elected State Senator, and 
served three terms as such. He was appointed Adjutant-General of 
the State May 1, 1864, and served in that office until April 30, 1868. 
Edward McGarry was Colonel of the regiment from November 29, 1864, 
to the muster out of the regimental organization, March 31, 1866. 

After completing the organization of the regiment, and a short period 
for drill and discipline, the regiment was sent, by companies, to various 
stations. 

Regimental headcjuarters went first to Utah Territory, and after 
remaining there until October, 1864, was removed to Camp Union, near 
Sacramento, and remained there until the final muster out of the regi- 
ment as an organization, in March, 1866. 

Company A went first to Fort Churchill, Nevada, then to Utah Ter- 
ritory, where it remained until December, 1864, when it took station at 
Camp Union, Sacramento, about which time the terms of service of 
most of its members expired and the company was reorganized by reen- 
listment of many of its old members and the enlistment of recruits 
enough to fill up the company to the required number. In Sei^tember, 
1865, it marched to Fort Miller, in Fresno County, and in November, 
1865, it marched to Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, where it .remained 



SECOND REGIMENT OF CAVALRY. 169 

until ordered to Camp Union, near Sacramento, for muster out, in April, 
1866. 

Company B was ordered to the southern part of the State, and became 
part of Carleton's " California Column," and marched with that com- 
mand to New Mexico. In the sjjring of 1864 it returned to California, 
and was mustered out as a company at San Francisco, October 10, 1864. 
The company that performed the above mentioned service was under 
command of Captain -John C. Cremony. After the muster out of the 
original Company B, a new Company B was organized, and Captain 
Cremony having been promoted Major, George D. Conrad became Cap- 
tain of the company. The new company remained at Camp Union, 
Sacramento, until June, 1865, when it moved to Dun Glen, Nevada, 
where it served until mustered out in the spring of 1866. 

Company C served at Fort Crook, Humboldt County, California, nearly 
the whole of the time it was in the service. When the terms of its 
original members expired in the fall of 1864, they were mustered out at 
Fort Crook, and the company was filled up by enlistment of recruits in 
San Francisco. It was finally mustered out at Sacramento in May, 1866. 

Company D, after leaving Camp Alert, went to Camp Independence, 
in Owens River Valley, remaining there until August, 1863; then to 
Fort Tejon, Kern County, California, until March, 1864, when it moved 
to Camp Union, where the original members were mustered out, upon 
the expiration of their respective terms, during the months of September 
and October, 1864. The company was then reorganized by Captain 
W. L. Knight, and after serving a short time at Camp Union, Sacra- 
mento, and Camp .Jackson, in Amador County, went to Colusa; then to 
Red Bluff, and finally, in July, 1865, to Smoke Creek, Nevada, where it 
remained until ordered in to be mustered out at Camp Union, May 29, 
1866. 

Company E, after leaving Camp Alert, went first to Fort Humboldt, 
Humboldt County, remaining there until the spring of 1862. No record 
of the stations of this company can be found from February, 1862, until 
April, 1863, at which time it was at Camp Independence, Owens River 
Valley. During July, 1863, it went to Fort Tejon, and in August, 1863, 
to Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, where it remained until November, 1865. 
The original members were mustered out in San Francisco, October 6, 
1864. After leaving Camp Babbitt the company was stationed again at 
Camp Independence, until it was ordered to San Francisco to be mus- 
tered out, which took place June 2, 1866. 

Company F was organized in Sacramento, and was first called the 
" Sacramento Rangers." After the completion of the organization at 
Camp Alert it was stationed at various places, having served at Camp 
Union, Fort Bidwell, Bear Valley, Cal., Fort Crook, Smoke Creek, Nev., 
and Goose Lake, Cal. About one third of the company, under a Lieu- 
tenant, was kept in San Francisco as a provost guard most of the time 
that the company was in the service. This company furnished a large 
number of officers for other companies and regiments of the California 
Volunteers, fourteen of the enlisted men having been commissioned as 
officers from it. The terms of service of the original members having 
expired, they were mustered out at San Francisco, September 24, 1864; 
the company was again filled up, and was finally mustered out at Sac- 
ramento, June 27, 1866. 

Company G, after its organization at Camp Alert, was sent to Camp 



170 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

Drum, where it remained about a month; tlien went to Camp Latham, 
near Los Angeles. There is no record showing how long it remained at 
Camp Latham, nor of the tiixie between February 28, 1862, when it was 
at the latter place, and April 30, 1863, at which time it was stationed at 
Camp Independence, Owens Valley. During August, 1863, the company 
moved to Camp Leonard, Cal., where it remained for two months; then 
went to Fort Tejon, remaining three months; thence to Camp Babbitt, 
near Visalia, where it remained from January, 1864, to August, 1864, 
taking up the march for San Francisco to be mustered out. The original 
members were mustered out during the months of September and Octo- 
ber, 1864. The company was again filled up, and was stationed at Camp 
Union from October, 1864, to March, 1865; then it was in camp near 
Hornitos, Mariposa County, for one month; then at Cainp Union until 
February 1, 1866, when it was finally mustered out. 

Company H, after organization at Camp Alert, was sent to Fort 
Churchill, Nevada, where it was stationed during the months of Janu- 
ary and February, 1862. There are no records of the stations of this 
company from February 28, 1862, until April 30, 1864, when we find it 
stationed at Camp Relief, U. T., and from May to August, 1864, at Camp 
Conness, I. T., and at Camp Douglas, U. T., during September, 1864. 
The terms of service of most of the original members expired during 
the months of September and October, and they were mustered out at 
Camp Douglas. The remaining men were marched to Camp Union, 
Sacramento, where the company was recruited up, and remained on 
duty there during the months of December, 1864, January, February, 
and March, 1865; on provost guard duty in the City of Sacramento 
during the months of April, May, June, July, and August, when it was 
ordered to Drum Barracks, Los Angeles County, arriving there about 
October 1, 1865, where it remained until its final muster out, April 20, 
1866; a detachment, however, seems to have been stationed in San Fran- 
cisco, where it was mustered out at the Presidio, April 26, 1866. 

Company I was organized at Camp Alert. It was sent first to Camp 
Drum, where it was stationed during January, 1862, and at Camp La- 
tham, near Los Angeles, in February, 1862. From February, 1862, to 
April, 1863, there is no record. On April 30, 1863, the company was at 
Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, where it remained until January, 1864; it 
then marched to Benicia Barracks, where it Avas stationed during March, 
April, and May; thence to Camp Bid well, near Chico, where it remained 
from June, 1864, to May, 1865. During June and July it was en route 
to Camp McDermit, Nevada, where it remained until it was ordered in 
for final muster out at Sacramento, .June 24, 1866. The terms of most 
of the original members expired in September, and they were discharged 
in San Francisco from October 1 to October 7, 1864. 

Company K was at Camp Alert until February 28, 1862. There is no 
report showing when the company left that post nor where it served for 
more than a year. We find it next at Fort Ruby, Nev., March 31, 
1863; it was then stationed at Deep Creek, U. T., Government Springs, 
U. T., Cedar Swamp, U. T., Fort Ruby again, Farmington, U. T., and 
Camp Douglas — about a month at each place. It was stationed at Camp 
Douglas from November, 1863, until April, 1864; it then moved to vari- 
ous places: Camp Relief, U. T., Canon Creek, I. T., Camp Conness, I. T,, 
Farmington, U. T., and Camp Douglas again, arriving at the latter place 
about the last of September, 1864, where nearly all of the original mem- 



SECOND REGIMENT OF CAVALRY. 171 

bers were mustered out for expiration of terms. The company was again 
recruited up and served at Camp Union, Cal., to June 80, 1865, then at 
Chico, Cal., July, 1865, Smoke Creek, Nev., August to October, 1865, and 
at Fort Churchill until May 1, 1866, when it was marched to Camp Union, 
Cal., and finally mustered out May 18, 1866. 

Company L was at Camp Alert until March, 1862, from which time 
until April 30, 1863, no record can be found of the localities occupied 
by the company. During that month it was in camp at Bishop Creek, 
Owens River Valley; during May, 1863, at Camp Independence, same 
valley; June, at Fort Churchill, July, at Fort Ruby, both in Nevada; 
August, en route to Salt Lake, and from that month to March, 1864, at 
Camp Douglas, near Salt Lake City. During the next four months it 
was at various places in succession, as follows: Rush Valley, March, 
1864; Camp Relief, April; Camp Conness, May; Bingham Creek, -June; 
and back to Camp Douglas for the next two months; then at Fort 
Bridger, Wy. T., for five months; then to Fort Laramie, Wy. T., for a few 
months; then in Rush Valley, V. T., to May, 1866, and finally back to 
Camp Douglas for final muster out on July 12, 1866. The terms of 
service of the original members expired in September and October, 1864, 
and they were mustered out at Camp Douglas, where the company was 
reorganized. 

Company M was at Camp Alert until the spring of 1862, from which 
time until May, 1863, no record of its stations can be found. From 
May 1, 1863, to May, 1864, it was stationed at Fort Bridger, Wy. T.; 
from May until August, 1864, surveying and making wagon road from 
Salt Lake to head of navigation on the Colorado River, in Arizona, near 
Fort Mojave, A. T.; from August to November, at Camp Douglas; from 
November, 1864, to May, 1865, at Fort Bridger, Wy. T.; May and June, 
1865, at Fort Laramie; July, August, September, October, and Novem- 
ber, at various places in Dakota, Wyoming, and Utah Territories; from 
November, 1865, to May, 1866, at Government Reservation, Rush Val- 
ley, U. T.; May and June, 1866, at Camp Douglas,. where the company 
was finally mustered out, July 12, 1866. The terms of service of the 
original members expired in September and October, 1864, and the 
company was mustered out at Camp Douglas, October 4, 1864. The 
company was immediately reorganized by recruiting new members, and 
it remained in the service until its final muster out, as shown above. 

The following events in the history of the regiment are gleaned from 
various reports, letters, monthly returns, muster rolls, etc. It is re- 
gretted that the officers were not required to make returns to the office 
of the Adjutant-General of the State during the first year they were in 

the service: 

Headquarters Second Cavalry, California Volunteers, 
Camp Douglas, Utah, October 31, 1862. 

Colonel: Agreeably to your orders, dated Fort Ruby, Nev., September twenty-ninth, 
to proceed thence on the next day (tlie thirtieth) with Company H, Second Cavalry, Cali- 
fornia Volunteers, on the northern overland route, via the "City of Rocks," in quest of 
guerrillas or hostile Indians supposed to have congregated there, I have the honor to 
report that, having left Fort Ruby on the day specified, I overtook, on the second day's 
march. Captain S. P. Smith, of the Second Cavalry, who preceded me with his company 
the day l)efore, and who was encamped in Pine Valley. Here I remained awaiting the 
returnof the Indians who accompanied Captain Smith, and who had been sent out by 
him to bring in hostile Indians. 

Having been informed that fires were seen near our camp, 1 dispatched Captain Smith 
with a portion of his company, at night, to learn of them. He returned next morning 
and reported, "No trace of Indians." On the morning of the fourth we took up the line 
of march, on the route designated, and arrived at Gravelly Ford on the fifth, without 



172 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

having discovered any Indians. Here, on the seventh, I sent Captain Smith and Lieu- 
tenant Darwin Chase with a ])arty of men down the river, and Lieutenant George D. 
Conrad up the soutJi side of the Humboldt, with instriictions to scour the country for 
hostile Indians or guerrillas, and to report to me, at a place designated, on the north 
side of the Humboldt, where I encamped on the ninth with the balance of the command. 
This evening (the ninth) some of the command enticed into camp three Indians; two of 
them were armed witli rifles, and the other with bow and arrows. 1 immediately ordered 
their arms taken from them, and placed them under a guard, intending to retain them 
until the arrival of my interpreter, who was with the detachment under Lieutenant 
Conrad. A short time after tlieir arrest the Indians made an attempt to obtain their 
arms, and, liaving succeeded, tiiey resisted the guard and broke and ran a short distance ; 
they were fired upon by the guard and crippled. Fearing that they would escape, and 
not wishing to hazard the lives of my men m recapturing them alive, I ordered the guard 
to fire, and they were killed on the spot. Here, on the tenth. Captain Smith joined the 
command, and reported that he had received no information, nor had he seen any signs 
of guerrillas or hostile Indians. 

On the eleventh I proceeded on the march, having sent out the officers of the com- 
mand with instructions that if Indians were found to bring them into camp. Captain 
Smith liaving been sent in advance, had not jjroceeded more than ten or twelve miles 
when he came upon a party of al)0ut fourteen or fifteen Indians, who were armed with 
rifles, bows and arrows. He surrounded them and took from theiii their arms. Imme- 
diately after, the Indians attempted to escape by jumping into the river. They were fired 
upon and nine of them killed. On the same day Lieutenant Conrad and party brought 
into camp three Indians and an Indian child. Captain Smith returned in the evening 
with two squaws. Next day, the twelfth, < 'a]itain McLean returned, bringing in one In- 
dian and a squaw. Same day Lieutenant Clark returned witli one Indian ; another Indian 
was captured during the evening. The next day, the thirteenth, I told two of the Indians, 
through the interpreter, that if they would go and bring in Indians who were engaged 
in the massacre of emigrants I would release them, but that if they did not return that 
night I would kill all the Indians I held as prisoners in canij). The next morning, the 
fourteenth, hearing nothing from the Indians I had sent out the day previous, I put to 
death four of those remaining, and released the squaws and child, telling them that we 
were sent there to punish Indians who were engaged in the massacre of emigrants, and 
instructed them to tell all the Indians that if they did not desist from killing emigrants 
that I would return there next summer and destroy them. On the next day, the thir- 
teenth, I sent Lieutenants Chase and Conrad with a detachment on the south side of the 
Humboldt, with instructions as l^efore. They came upon a party of Indians encamped 
in the mountains, armed with rifles, bows and arrows. They were siirroundcd and their 
arms taken from them. The Indians, attempting to escape, were fired upon, when eight 
of their number were killed. The balance of the route no traces of Indians were seen. 
On the twenty-eighth I arrived at the place designated by you ; the next day, at about 
3 o'clock p. M., arrived at this camp. 

The route is a good one, with an abundance of grass and water. In conclusion, it 
affords me great pleasure to report the efficiency of tlie officers, and the good conduct of 
the men of the command without the loss of any. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

EDWARD McGARRY, 

Major, Second Cavalry, California Volunteers. 

Col. P. Edward Connor, Third Infantry, California Volunteers, Commanding District of Utah, 
Camp Douglas, Utah. 

Official : 

RICHARD C. DRUM, 
Assistant Adjutant-General. 



Headquarters Second Cavalry, California Volunteers, 
Camp Douglas, Utah, November 28, 1862. 

Lieutenant : I have the honor to report that, agreeable to instructions of the Colonel 
commanding the district, I left this camp on the night of the twentieth instant and jiro- 
ceeded to Cache Valley, where I arrived about 11 o'clock p. m. on the twenty-second, dis- 
tance one hundred miles, where I was met by Mr. Van Orman, the uncle of the emigrant 
boy you ordered me to rescue from the Indians. He informed me that Chief Bear Hunter 
was encamped, with thirty or forty of his tribe, Shoshones, Snakes, and Bannocks, about 
two miles distant. I left ithe horses in the settlement called Providence, in charge of a 
guard, and started about 1 o'clock for the Indian camp. The night was dark and cold, 
and we did not find the camp until the morning of the twenty-third. I then divided my 
command into three ])arties, under Captain Smith, Lieutenant Conrad, and myself, with 
instructions to surround the camp and close in upon them at daybreak. I found in a tent 
two squaws. The Indians liad all left that nignt, as I perceived that the fires in thi-ir 
huts were not extinguished. I then returned t(i where I had left the horses, at which 
place I arrived aliout 7 o'clock a. m. Captain Smitli brought in one Indian, caught in 
trying to escape ; I made a prisoner of him. About 8 o'clock a party of mounted Indians, 



SECOND REGIMENT OP CAVALRY. 173 

1 should think thirty or forty, armed with rifles, bows and arrows, made their appearance 
from a canon on a bench between the settlement and the hills, about a mile from the 
settlement, and made a war-like display, such as shouting, riding in a circle, and all sorts 
of antics known only to their race. I immediately ordered my men to mount, divided 
them as before, sent Captain Smith to the right," Lieutenant Conrad to the lett, and 1 
took the center, driving the Indians into the canon. When I arrived at the mouth of 
the cailon 1 halted for the purpose of reconnoitering; just at that time the Indians 
opened fire upon Lieutenant Conrad. I then ordered my men to commence firing, and 
to kill every Indian they could see. By this time the Indians had possession of the 
caiion and hills on both sides. I found it would be impossible to enter the caiion witli- 
out exposing my men greatly. I therefore reinforced Lieutenant Conrad on the left of 
the caiion, with orders to take the hill on the left of the canon at all hazards. About the 
time the reinforcements reported to him, Chief Bear Hunter made his appearance on a 
hilltop on the right, with a flag of truce (as I was informed afterwards); I at the time 
took it to be a war-like demonstration. A citizen who heard his hallooing came up to me 
and told me that the chief said they did not want to fight any more. I then ordered my 
men to cease firing, and told him to say to the chief if they would surrender and come 
in I would not kill them, which terms they acceded to. Chief Bear Hunter with twenty 
or more of his warriors then came in. I took them into the settlement, took Bear Hunter 
and four others that I thought to be prominent Indians and examined them (through an 
interpreter) as to the whereabouts of the white boy, and ascertained that he had been 
sent away some days before. 

I told Bear Hunter to send some of his tribe and bring the boy to me; that I should 
hold the five as hostages until they delivered him to me. He dispatched three of his 
men, and they returned the next day about noon with the boy. I then released Bear 
Hunter and the four otliers. I killed three and wounded one Indian in the fight. I 
was told by Bear Hunter that an Indian known as Woeber Tom, alias Utah Tom, 
communicated the information of our approach. In relation to the emigrant stock I 
was ordered to examine into and bring to camp, I could not find any such, and from 
the information I could gather I am of the opinion that all, or nearly all, of the stock taken 
by the Indians last summer is now in the Humboldt coimtry. I left Cache Valley on 
the morning of the twentj'-fifth, and arrived at this camp on the afternoon of the twenty- 
seventh, without the loss or scratch of man or horse. It aflbrds me great pleasiire to 
report to the Colonel commanding the good conduct of the command, and during the 
fight, which lasted about two hours, the officers and men behaved handsomely. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

EDWARD McGARRY, 

Major, Second Cavalry, California Volunteers. 

Second Lieut. Thomas S. Harris, Second Cavalry, California Volunteers, Acting Assistant 
Adjutant-General, District of Utah. 



Headquarters Camp Douglas, Utah, 
February 26, 1863. 

Colonel: I have the honor to submit the following inspection report of the troops, 
public proi)erty, and buildings at this post, as required, by Special Orclers No. 15, Depart- 
ment of the Piu'ific, January 17, 1863. 

In compliance with the above I have carefully inspected and examined into each depart- 
ment. This post is garrisoned by the headquarters and Companies A, H, K, and M, 
Second Cavalry, California Volunteers, and the headquarters and Companies E, G, H, and 
K, Third Infantry, California Voktnteers, both of which regiments have conformed to the 
organization prescribed in General Orders No. 126, War Deiiartment. 

The discipline of the troops is excellent, but their instruction in military exercises is 
not as good as I would like, which is, however, attributable to the time consumed in the 
march from California to this post, the time consiimed in the constrviction of canton- 
ments and on detached service, and the inclemency of the season, which has allowed of 
but few drills in the last eight months. Thev are, however, well instnicted in their other 
duties; the clothing, arms, equipments, and accouterments of the infantry are in good 
condition, kept clean, and in good order ; their clothing is well preserved,' is kept very 
neat, and is warm and comfortable, though the su])ply of some articles is nearly exhaustetl. 
The kitchen, mess furniture, etc., of the companies is in good order, cleanly and carefully 
kept, the food well cooked, wholesome and plentiful in quantity. The books, papers, and 
files neatly kept, and the com]iany funds properly and judiciously expended in the pur- 
chase of necessaries for the men. 

The quarters or cantonments are thirty-two in number, and are temporary shelters of 
tents placed over excavations four feet deep, with good stone and adobe fire-places; they 
are warm and comfortable, capable of accommodating twelve men each, are all dry, well 
ventilated, and convenient to good water; they are kept clean and in good order. 

The quarters occupied by the cavalry companies are constructed in the same manner 
and are ecjual in every respect to the infantry in comfort and conveniences. The mess, 
kitchen, and company furniture is also well preserved, is in good order; the company 
books, papers, files, etc., kept with system, and the funds fairly and judiciously expended 
in the piirchase of such articles as aVe needed by the men. 

Their clothing is, however, scanty, old, and badly out of repair, much of it quite worn 



174 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

nut, having been worn a long time- many of the men are quite ragged, and before a new 
supply of clothing can be had will be quite destitute. 

Their arms, accouterments, and equipments of all kinds need repairs, and some of them 
are totally unfit for service; their belts are much worn and are nearly worthless; many 
of the carbines broken and unfit for service and others useless and wanting repairs. Two 
companies are armed with Whitney rifles, a very unwieldy arm and (juite unsuited to 
cavalry service, being difficult to load or carry on horseback. Many of these are also out 
of repair, and some of them unfit for use by reason of long service ; a large number of the 
])istols used arc also out of repair, and some totally unserviceable, never having been 
repaired since they have been m use. I also find quite a large number of the Conbien 
cartridges are too "short for those pieces, and some entirely useless. 

The horse equipments, excepting the saddles, are also in very bad order, having been 
worn a long time and badly wanting repairs, particularly the bridles and bits ; the latter 
are made of cold iron, are Very narrow, cliafe the horse's mouth, and are easily broken. 
The horses are in very good condition as to appearance and keeping, but are generally 
light and rather small for efficient field service ; a few of them are worn oiit and unfi't 
for use. 

The officers' quarters consist of thirteen small buildings, constructed of logs and 
adobes over ground excavations of from three to four feet deep, and covered with boards, 
straw, and earth. They have good fire-places, and average four rooms each. The build- 
ing occupied by the commanding officer is above ground, constructed of adobes, contains 
five rooms, two of which are occupied as Adjutants' offices. The above are all temporary 
structures, and only adapted for shelter this winter. 

The guard house contains three rooms and a cell ; the bake house one room and a large 
oven. These are also above ground, and are built of stone and adobes; they are sub- 
stantial structures, and well adapted to the wants of the command. 

The Commissaries' and Quartermasters' offices and stores are all under one cover, con- 
structed of paulins stretched over a sul)stantial frame two hundred feet long. 

The hospital consists of a small log structure and three hospital tents, rendered warm 
and confortable by boards and earth; is in excellent condition, and well arranged for the 
comfort and convenience of the sick this winter ; has good fire-places, and is well sup- 
plied with all the medical stores necessary. The sick and wounded receive every atten- 
tion and all the luxuries the country affords. But little sickness has prevailed at the post. 

At this date, owing to wounds and injuries received on the march to and at the battle 
of Bear River, the morning report shows seventy sick in ([uartcrs and twenty-two in hos- 
pital; one officer and six men have died of their wounds, all being shot in a vital part; 
four men have had their toes amputated and two have lost a finger each. 

The inmates of the hospital are now doing well, and with one exception will all prob- 
ably recover. 

There are four cavalry stables, two Quartermaster's stables, and one blacksmith shop, 
all of which are constructed of willows bound together by uprights, and well lined, and 
covered with straw and earth. The stables are very warm, well drained, and convenient 
to good water. 

The buildings combine comfort with economy, and materials used in their -construc- 
tion will answer every purpose in the erection of more permanent quarters. The Post 
Treasurer's books are well and neatly kept. The fund is divided among the companies 
at the post. 

The capacity of the officers conducting the administrative and staff de]>artments good. 
Their books and papers are in good order, and their respective duties disiharged with 
fidelity and economy to the Government and credit to themselves. There is $403 25 in 
United States Treasury notes on hand in Quartermaster's Department. The condition of 
all the public property, with the exception of a few wagons (which need repair), is good, 
having oeen well taken care of and carefully used. There is no post school, but several 
moral and religious societies exercise a healthful influence in the command. Divine 
service is well attended. 

There are but two desertions to record during the last two months. Courts-martial 
are rare, have been seldom for grave offenses, and very few offenders requiring punisli- 
ment. The officers of the jiost are, with two exceptions, gentlemen of sound health, 
good moral character, and temperate habits, and attentive and efficient in the discharge 
of their duties. 

Inclosed herewith I have the honor to transmit rolls of officers and men who have been 
mustered into the service since the organization of the companies and regiments. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

P. EDW. CONNOR, 
Colonel, Third Infantry, California Volunteers, Inspecting Officer. 

To Lieut. -Col. R. C. Drum, Assistant Adjutant-General, U. S. Army, JDeparttnent of Pacific, 
San Fraricisco. 

The Battle of Bear River. 

Report of an expedition against the Snake and Shoshone Indians on 
Bear River, in northern Utah and southern Idaho, during the month of 
January, 1863, by the special correspondent of the " Daily Alta Califor- 
nia" newspaper. 



SECOND REGIMENT OF CAVALRY. 175 

This report is inserted in this place as part of the history of the Sec- 
ond Cavalry, for the reason that the greater part of the force engaged 
were frpm that regiment, though the expedition Avas commanded hy 
Colonel P. Edward Connor, of the Third California Infantry. Four 
companies of the Second Cavalry and one company of the Third Cali- 
fornia Infantry took part in the battle: 

THE EXPEDITION. 

The circumstances which gave rise to the expedition against the Indians are numerous 
and diversified. The conception of the expedition is due to Colonel P. Edward Connor, 
and the brilliant execution of his plans and their glorious results are exclusively the 
well-earned honors of his brave officers and his no less brave men. Judge J. F. Kinney 
issued a writ for the apprehension of Indian chiefs Sand Pitch, Sag Witch, and Bear 
Hunter, on the charge of murdering miners passing to and from this city and the new 
gold mines in "Washington and Dakota Territories. Colonel Connor— from the first 
reports ot the murder of immigrants on the Humboldt and various other localities along 
tlie northern route to California last summer — determined in cutting off the savages, 
and commenced the carrying out of his design by tlie cavalry expedition from Ruby 
Valley last fall, in which Major McGarry was so ve'rv successful in the accomplishment 
ot his' commander's instructions, save and except in his inaliility to find trees on which to 
liang the murderous savages. Since that time the Indian attacks upon the whites, travel- 
ing to and from the Dakota Mines, have only added determination to determination to rid 
the countrv of this terrible scourge— this perpetual reign of terror ; and wherever there was 
the slightest hope of reaching the savages the gallant ^Major was ordered in pursuit. 
Twice, since the arrival of the Volunteers at Salt Lake, expeditions have been sent into the 
northern settlements of this Territory— the first for the recovery of a white boy retained 
bv the Indians, and the second for the recovery of immigrant property. From reliable 
information recently furnished Colonel Connor of the locality of tlie Indians who had 
lieen engaged in the'murderous work for the last fifteen years, the expedition was under- 
taken, the more recent attacks and murders only adding to the incentive to " make clean 
work of the savages." Preparations for the expedition were in progress when Marshal 
Gibbs called upon the Colonel for a military escort to protect him in serving the writs for 
the Indian chiefs named. The Colonel acknowledged no authority for calling on a mili- 
tary escort till a civil posse had been called, tried, and failed ; but at the same time 
informed the Marshal that he was prepared to start for that place, and would inform 
him of his intended departure the night preceding the time fixed, that he might accom- 
]>any the expedition ; but he could promise no prisoners — it was not his intention to have 
any' This much, as a prelude, is not without its interest, as it will have its bearing on 
record, and will award to the sword instead of the ermine the initiation of a struggle that 
will eventuate in "freeing the country of its foes." 

On Thursday, January twenty-second, Captain Samuel X. Hoyt, with fortv men of 
Company K, I'hird Infantry, accompanied by a train of fifteen wagons, taking with 
them two howitzers, left Camp Douglas, witli secret instructions, secret as far as his 
<luties, etc., were concerned, but public enough for the " Indian runners" to know that 
the camp on Bear River was the destination of the troops. Through the snow the infan- 
try plodded along, till beyond the confines of the city on the west, where the train received 
the Volunteers. Taking "into account the recent snows, the northerly climate, and the road 
that would have to be made over the summit of the mountains, separating Cache and Box 
Elder Valleys, the infantry were to pursue their march leisurely, with the view also that 
the Indians" might learn the strength of the Volunteers, and, basing calculations thereon, 
would gather in their stronghold and have a battle. The ruse was successful. Two Indian 
boys, one of them in the service of the mountaineer, reached the Indian camp with the 
intelligence of the march, numjiers, etc. The Indian chiefs were unconcerned, but gave 
orders for their warriors to prepare, while tliey visited, as usual, the settlements. On the 
morning of the sixth day's march, as Cajitain Hnyt and his men entered the town of 
Franklin, Bear Hunter left it. The same evening, after a four tlays' ride, < me of sixty miles 
and the others of easier marches, over the mountains, in deep snow and with a piercing, 
cold, bitter wind that nearly disabled a third of the command, ]\Iajor ISIcGarry, with two 
hundred cavalry, accompanied by Colonel Connor and his aids, at midnight rode into the 
settlement and" fraternized with"the infantry. The Indians could know nothing of the 
approach of any cavalry, and thus far the "plan for their destruction had been success- 
fully concealed." The infantry had orders to march at the first hours of the morning, 
and the cavalry to rest for a few hours. The unbroken roads impeded the progress of 
the infantry, aiid the heavy howitzers were clearly to fall in the rear; yet concealment 
being success, the cavalry dashed on at its appointed hour, and reached the banks of Bear 
River before the dawn o"f day had fully illuminated the field of contest. 

The orders to "load" and *" forward'" soon succeeded each other, and Major McGarry, 
accompanied by IMajor Gallagher, led the way into the river with Company K, Second 
Cavalry, Lieutenant "Darwin Chase and fifty men; Company M, Second Cavalry, Captain 
Geo. F. Price and fifty men; Company H, "Second Cavalry, Captain Daniel McLean and 
fifty men; and Company A, Second" Cavalry, Lieutenant Quinn and fifty men. The 
passage of the river was "extremely difficult, from the hard ice at its bottom, underlying 



176 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

the current that carried also broken sheets of ice with it, to the incessant noise and 
danger of upsetting tlie horses and their riders. The companies of Price and Chase, first 
reaching the northern bank of the river, had orders to advance, and after a short gallop 
they halted at the foot of the mountains to form in line of battle. The companies of 
McLean and Quinn were soon up in the rear, but before the men had all dismounted the 
Indians had saluted them with a shower of lead, w'ounding one of the Volunteers. 

Colonel Connor had remained on the south bank of the river, giving instructions for 
the passage i >f tlic i nfaiitry and the howitzers when they should get up, and had instructed 
Major ^Ic(;arry to surround the ravine in which the Indians had cami~)ed, and had no 
expectation of opening the fight until the infantry had arrived; but the Indians precipi- 
tated the engagement, and the Major, unable to flank them with the first two companies 
at his disposal, ordered them to advance as skirmishers. The Colonel was over the river 
and up at the fight in a few minutes after, and the otlier companies advanced in the same 
order. 

The winter quarters of this band was probably first selected for protection from the 
blasts of winter, as the ravine was over twenty feet deep and open only to the south ; and 
as, probably, soon after its occupancy the}' saw the advantage of the defenses it attorded in 
case of attack, and, as found by the troops, the Indians had exhibited excellent engineer- 
ing in its defense. At that place Bear River flows almost directly due west, though its 
general course is southwest. The ravine occupied by the Indians was almost due north 
and south, though embellished with curves enough east and west and west and east. 

The banks of the ravine are almost perpendicular, and only accessible by a few artificial, 
intricate windings, except at the mouth of the ravine, near the river, where it widens and 
loses its depth. The troops, to approach the ravine, had to pass over two "benches," or 
slight declivities, which necessarily ex]iosed them to the fire of the Indians before they 
could have time to see the position of the latter. Anticipating the attack from the cast- 
as, in fact, it was the only position for attack — the Indians had used freely the pick and 
shovel and cut artificial benches on that side of the ravine, so that they could rise at will 
to see their enemy, fire away, and descend again out of danger. Their lodges were also 
well protected at the bottom by rocks and earth, and being planted in positions con- 
veniently surrounded by thick willows, they may be said to have had a miniature 
Sebastopol. The Volunteers now say that with the same number of troops as Indians in 
such a position, they could liave held at bay tivo thousand soldiers. The sides of the ravine 
perpendicular, protected by benches east and west; the north end of it lost in the mount- 
ain, and the south end bordering on the river, they undoubtedly fancied themselves in 
perfect security. As confirmation of this was the fact that they had all their ponies tied 
Tip together, and the squaws and papooses were about the lodges as usual. 

As the dismounted cavalry advanced towards the ravine, the Indians, who had been on 
the benches bordering upon it tantalizing our troops to advance, immediately retreated, 
and, as the Volunteers approached, sent out their deadly fire, which sent down the men 
" like the leaves of autumn." The completely concealed'^and protected Indians had then 
before them the fight as they wanted it, but the Colonel immediately ordered tlie men to 
cover themselves as well as they could and save their ammunition, while he ordered 
Major McGarry and a detachment of men to climb the mountain to the north, outflank 
them, and take them in the rear from the west side. Skirmisliing as they went north- 
ward, the detachment outflanked the Indians on the left, while the other Cavalry engaged 
them in front. By this time the infantry under Captain Hoyt had arrived. Hearing the 
firing wliile yet at a distance, the infantry hastened up the river, and in their eagerness 
for a share of the fight attempted to ford the river on foot, but finding it impossible with 
safety to themselves and to their arms, fell back. The cavalry horses were sent over to 
them, and dripping wet, on a severe cold morning, our brave Volunteers mounted, crossed 
the river, and galloped up to the battle. They were immediatelv ordered to support 
Major McGarry in his flanking movement, and, with this increased force, the object was 
accomplished. 

Captain Hoyt got to the west side of the ravine, and, while a portion of his men kept 
up their fire directly in the rear of the Indians, the others were stretched out in a perfect 
cordon over the north end of the ravine, forming, with the cavalry in front, about three 
quarters of a circle. By this enfilading from three points the Indians were gradually 
driven to the center and southward. They exliibited the daring of men who fully coni- 
prehended the forlorn position they occupied, made no attempt to run, but fouglit dog- 
gedly, contesting with every man "the moment they could behold him. As the battle 
continued, and the Indian position became clearly untenable, the Colonel ordered a de- 
tachment of mounted cavalry to get round the ravine, to the west side, on the borders of 
the river, with the view of cutting ofl' their retreat, as the complete investment of the 
ravine rendered that their only hope of escape should they attempt even that. As ex- 
pjected, they idtimately broke and hurried to the mouth of the ravine, where portions of 
Companies K and M were prepared for them on the east. The Indians fought bravely; 
but now, away from their lodges and places of natural and artificial defense, it was their 
turn to feel the weakness of exposure. The Indians there fell in heaps; some attempted 
to escape into the river, but the keen eye of tlie Volunteer, avenging the helph^ss emi- 
grants, the women and children whose jjlood had been unatoned, and the fresh flowing 
blood of his comrade lying at his feet, was, in a moment, upon the fleeing form of tlie 
savage, and the deadly rifle did its work, and few escaped. Other Indians sought refuge 
in the thick willows of the ravine, and on the border of the river ; but the order to " ' scour 
the brushes " dislodged the sneaking foe. Some of them, counting, no doubt, on the fate 
that surely awaited them, revealed the places of their concealment by the deadly fire they 



SECOND EEGIMENT OF CAVALRY. 177 

kept up from the willows, and one liy one they were dislodged, and the silence of grim 
death began to reign, where before tlie hills had reverberated with the incessant crack of 
tlie rifle. The last of the enemy waited his chance, and, while Major Gallagher was 
leading on a detachment into the brushes, let blaze at the Major, and sent his ball thi'ough 
his left arm into his side. Loading again, before they could see his place of concealment, 
the Indian fired again, and knocked a Volunteer from his horse, who was close by the 
side of the Colonel. A volley from the detachment in the direction of the blaze that 
revealed the Indian's concealment ended the bloody struggle. 

As soon as the battle was over the wounded were carried to the Surgeon's tent, and 
had his first, best, and unremitting attention. The dead were gathered tip and placed in 
the baggage wagons, then the lodges of the Indians and their property were destroyed. 
There were sixty-eight lodges in all, and provisions enough to serve the whole band for 
a number of months. The lodges were l>urned, and what could not be used by the troops, 
or made salable for the Government, was destroyed, save enough to siibsist upward of 
one hundred and twenty squaws and papooses who had survived the raging storm of 
battle. On the south side of the river-bank the Volunteers encamped for the night, to 
enjoy refreshment and rest, and to fight their battles o'er again as they grouped in peace 
together rovind their l:)ivouac fires. Next morning the wounded had the attention of the 
Colonel and Dr. Reid, and every means of transportation was engaged to rush them on 
to fpiarters. The Doctor started with them in sleighs over the deep snow, till within 
twenty miles of camji he found other conveyances, and arrived with his wounded charge 
between the night of ^Monday and TuesdaV following. The weather, fortiinately, had 
gi-eatly moderated, and though still cold, the wounded were very comfortably ])rovided 
for, and suffered nothing from exposure. Not a murmur was even heard of their long 
journey, and every man seemed to be more solicitous for his comrade than himself, and 
"every act of kindness and attention that the lesser woimded could show to those less 
fortunate, was done with a readiness and cheerfulness that showed there was more of 
country than of men in the relationship between them. Tliey were brothers in arms for 
a common cause. 

Colonel Connor dispatched to Colonel Evans to make every preparation for the recep- 
tion of the wounded, and gave the necessary instructions for the disposal of the dead. 
Dr. Reid sent in advance of liis train of wounded, messengers every day, to make prepara- 
ti(ins in the settlement for their arrival; and Colonel Evans had rations served, and tea, 
coffee, and soups cooked, awaiting them, or being carried to the hospital, the theater, and 
the chapel tent, which had been fitted up with everything that would conduce to the con- 
venience and comfort of the wounded. The stillness of the midnight hour when they 
arrived, and the flag drooping at half-mast, lent a solemnity to the scene not soon to be 
eradicated from our memories. There was a sadness about the camn that was felt by 
every person, and only rendered supportable by the knowledge of tne l)ravery of our 
men, the comijlete success of the expedition, and the extermination of the murderous 
savages. 

THE ARRIVAL OF THE COMMAND. 

Detained by the snows in the mountains, the command only returned on the evening 
of the fourth", cold and weary. A drove of about a hundred head of Indian horses enter- 
ing the camp was the first announcement of the returning of the men. Then rode up 
the Colonel in a "buggy," with the renowned Porter Rockwell, of great Mormon noto- 
riety, who had been his guide, and soon after appeared Major McGai-ry at the head of the 
cavalry, the infantry following, mounted on the Indian ponies they had captured. The 
command was soon in qiuirters, and the sick and crippled received the attention which 
their condition demanded. In the assistance of Dr. Reid, the names of Dr. Williamson, 
of the command, and Dr. Walcott Steel, of Dayton, Nevada, deserve mention. Both 
gentlemen weiit out about fifty miles to meet the wounded, and have since been close in 
their attentions to them. 

That the Indians in Idaho Territory, and to the noi'th of us, have been effectually 
checked in their murdering career, is with some a matter exceedingly doulitful. Those 
who know them best, and on whose jiidgment I would place confidence, think tnat the 
Indians will never again attempt a fair, stand-iip fight. Possibly, after the winter has 
broken up, another expedition will be set out after Po-ca-tello and other chiefs, who have 
large bands with them. I incline to the belief that Colonel Connor will clear the north- 
ern loute to California of Indians this coming summer. If he is not ordered East he 
will doubtless attempt to conciliate his men to their disappointment by engaging them 
in active service on the northern and central routes. There need be no apprehension of 
these routes henceforth being left to the mercy of the savages, for whether the present 
V<ilunteers remain or not, a military force willbe maintained. 

Captain McLean was yesterday very low, but is something better, and it is hoped that 
he will rally yet. Lieut"enant Berry is also much better. Major Gallagher is clearly pro- 
gressing favorably. The wounded officers and men have every medical attention and 
good nursing. 

Dr. Reid has earned for himself imperishable honors for his labors, night and day, 
among the wounded. Colonel Connor and the officers of the command are unceasing m 
their attentions, and a kindly feeling is everywhere manifest. 

It is much easier to conceive than to execute, and it is a much simpler business to ask 
than to grant. To have sent you an imperfect list of the wounded, would have been 
only to add pain to anxiety. Not a friend, relative, or familv interested in the California 
Volunteers would have been satisfied with learning that ""lie was wounded." It is the 



178 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

natural inquiry, "How nnicli?" "Slightly?" "Dangerously?" "Mortally?" and 
"Wliere?" 1 conceived, therefore, that a full re])ort alone would satisfy the citizens of 
California, and here it is, though I have necessarily had to wait for it. I telegraphed to, 
wrote to, and visited the camp to obtain it, but delay was unavoidable. Colonel Connor 
freely favored my request, and Dr. Reid — ^to whom your correspondent is indebted for 
many courtesies— at once set al)Out the work. 

The list is painfully interesting. The character of the wounds show, more forcibly 
than could our feeljle pen cxliil)it, tlie terriWe contest that nnist have raged the first few 
hours of tiie day on the nu>inoral)le twenty-ninth of January. Nothing but the daring, 
heroic, indomitable will of the Volunteers'could have stood up against the well directed 
fire of the Indians. Protected in his lurking place, where no eye could behold his pres- 
ence, he steadily aimed and sent the messenger of death with almost murderous precision 
at every touch of the trigger. The more serviceable also appears this carefully prepared 
list, as "the sad fact is too visible, that since the battle more than one half the numlicr 
that there fell have died from their wounds. How many more may be added to this list is 
beyond the ken of mortals; but if hope can be nourisned, and groundless fears be dis- 
pelled by certified facts, the list will not have been published in vain : 

Second Cavalry — Company A. 

Killed. — J. A. Baldwin, private, through the cheek. G. German, private, above the 
heart. 

Wounded. — John Welch, private, arrow in each lung; dangerously. William Wall, pri- 
vate, shot in right arm ; dangerously. W. H. Lake, private, shot in the mouth ; badly. 
William Jay, private, index finger sliot off; slightly. James Montgomery, private, rigl'it 
lung ; dangerously. 

Company H. 

Killed.— G. Hallowell, ]irivate, center of chest. J. K. Briggs, private, through the chest. 

Wounded. — B.C. Hutchingson, private, right arm; badly. P. Farlev, private, right 
side; badly. H. Connor, i)rivate, left eye; dangerously. J. Logue, ngbt elbow; badly. 
M. O'Brien, private, left lung; dangerously. P. Frawley, private, right shoulder and 
spine; dangerously. P. Shaub, private, left lung; dangerously. J. Cloves, private, right 
shoulder; slightly. J. Franklyn, private, right iiip and neck; dangerously. James 
Cantillon, Sergeant, left lung ; clangerously. T. Ridge, private, right arm ; slightly. 

Company K. 

Killed.— Qhvi^ii&n Smith, Bugler, center of chest, right to left. Shelbourne Reed, pri- 
vate, through the head. Adolphus Rowe, private, through both lungs. Lewis Ander- 
son, private, ttirough the heart. Henry W. Tremnf. private, through l)oth lungs. 

Wounded.— ^\. Flleg, jirivate, right shoulder; badly. A. McCoy, private, navel ; slightly. 
Benjamin Landes, Corporal, right shoulder; dangerously. Robert Hargrave, private, 
right elbow ; badly. S. C. Bush, private, left ankle ; badly. W. B. Welton, private, right 
thigh; badlv. W". M. Slocum, private, right lung; dangerously. John Lee, private, 
right arm and hip; badly. A. M. Parker, private, left arm; badly. — Brady, nose and 
face; dangerously. N. Kinsley, private, right side and arm; dangeroiisly. J. S. Lang- 
ley, private, neck; badly. John Daley, left breast and shoulder; dangerously. — Kelly, 
abdomen ; slightly. 

Company M. 

Killed.— G. C. Cox, private, through both lungs. G. W. Hoten, through tlie heart. A. 
F. Howard, Wagoner, through the heart. • 

Woimded.—K. Stevens, Sergeant, chest and shoulder; dangerously. P. Humbert, pri- 
vate, top of head; slightlv. —Heffner, private, right arm; sliglitly. John Stevens, private, 
top ot head; slightly. J. Lcggitt, private, left shoulder; dangerously. T. Barcafer, pri- 
vate, right shoulder ; dangerously. R. Miller, private, right shoulder; dangerouslv. E. 
C. Chase, private, i-ight shoulder: badly. M. Forbes, i)rivate, hand and arm; badly. 
L. W. Hughes, Corporal, nose and right side; badlv. L. D. Hughes, private, right leg; 
badly. W. M. Davis, private, riglitlung; died at Ogden, February 2, 1863. W. H. Hood, 
private, left hand and groin; badly. L. Robins, Sergeant, right side; badly. 

Third Infantry — Company K. 

Killed.— John E. Baker, private, through heart and stomach. S. J. W. Thomas, private, 
through the chest. 

Wounded.— A. Austin, Sergeant, right eve; dangerously. E. C. Hoyt, Sergeant, left 
lung ; dangerouslv. J. Henslev, private, right leg ; badly. T. B. Walker, private, left side ; 
l3adly. 

Officers Wounded. 

Major P. A. Gallagher, Third Infantry, left arm ; badly. Captain Daniel McLean, Com- 
pany H, Second Cavalry, left thigh and right arm ; dangerously. Lieutenant Darwin 
Chase, Company K, Second Cavalry, left lung; dangerously. Lieutenant D.. J. Berry, 
Companv A, Second Cavalry, right shoulder; dangerously. 

The following named officers and men are in hospital with frosted feet: 



SECOND REGIMENT OF CAVALRY. 



179 



Second Cavalry. 

Company A. — Corporals Spreggle and Duvall ; privates G. R. Swan, John D. Marker, 
S. Shoiiuulan, R. M. McNulty, and — McCue. 

Coiiipdiii/ II. — Serjeant .1. W. Kilgore; privates George Fisher, Stultz, A. Langraf, 
John Allinan, Bradlev, T. R. Gaston, A. G. Lockhard, H. Smith, J. M. Norton, W. M. 
Stier, W. M. Maher, W. W. Goodell. W. M. Walton, E. J. Casnean, and H. A. McDonald. 

Company K. — Sergeant W. M. Beach; Corporals W. M. White and Hnnt; privates J. 
Lincoln, Burns, Daley, S. Ausley, M. Atmore, F. W. Becker, W. Chapman, J. J. Hertle, 
S. L. Caldwell, C. Howe, J. Hill, G. Johnson, A. Mitchell, J. McKnow, A. S. Palmer, C. 
Wilson, and Barton. 

Company M. — Sergeant John Cullen ; Corporals A. P. Hewett and W. M. Steel; pri- 
vates W. M. Collins, A. P. Chase, J. Dyer, John McGonagal, and D. GrifHn. 

Third Infantry. 

Company K. — Serjeants C. J. Hcrron and C. F. Williams; Corporals J. H. Zollman, J. 
Wingatc, and W. A. lU'imctt ; privates W. St. John, A. Ramsdell, J. E. Em:>erson, A. F. 
H. Randall, W. H. Farnhani, .1. B^tarland, G. W. Ticknor, A. Rensho, B. B. Bigelow, J. 
Anderson, S. Urquhart, F. L. Borass, F. W. Branch, Bailey, Wm. Carlton, D. Donahue, C. 
H. Godbold, J. Haywood, C. W. Heath, J. Manning, W. G. Way, and J. German. 

Recapitulation . 



Regiment. 


Killed. 


Wounded. 


Frosted 
Feet. 


Total. 


Second Cavalry, Company A 


2 
2 
5 
3 
2 


5 
11 
14 
15 

4 


7 
16 
21 

8 
27 


14 


Second Cavalrv, Conij)anv H. 


29 


Second ('avalr\', CunipanyK . 


40 


Second Cavalry, Company M 

Third Inf'antrv, Company K _ 


26 

;^8 






Totals 


14 


49 


79 


142 







Died — Second Cavalry. 

Lieiitcnant Darwin Chase, Comiiany K, Fel)ruary fourtli, at Farmington, U. T. 
Private A\'illiain DaA'is, Company ^f, February second, at Ogdcn, U. T. 
Sergeant .lames Cantillon, Company II, Fehmary litth, at Camp Douglas, U. T. 
I'rivate William Slocum, Company K, February tifth, at Camp Douglas, U. T. 
Sergeant A. Stevens, Company M,* February sixth, at Camp Douglas, IJ. T. 
Private M. O'Brien, Company H, Feliruary* sixth, at Camp Douglas, IJ. T. 
Corporal P. Frawley, Company H, February eighth, at Camp Douglas, V. T. 
Private W. Wall, Company A, February eiglith, at Camp Douglas, U. T. 

THE BURI.\I. OF THE DE.\D. 

However well we may draw upon philosophy and challenge manhood within us, there 
is, in spite of everything, a cold sadness in tlie performance of tlie last homage of the 
living to the c^ad. I was at camji from early morn on Friday till late in the evening, in 
the interest or the "Alta;" Ijut had it been "otherwise, I certainly would have attended 
the interment of the Volunteers. The day was cold and raw; "notwithstanding, there 
was a large number of persons from the city. There was probably a score of carriages, 
many eciuestrians, and quite a concourse of p"eople on foot. Had it been generally known, 
there would, no doubt of it, have been many more. As it was, I expect it was pleasing 
to those who take interest in the entente cordiale to witness the very respectful demeanor 
of those jirescnt. 

Up to 1 p. M. the sixteen coffins lay side by side in the Quartermaster's storeroom, 
where the dead were visited by the surviving "^comrades. At that liour the entire com- 
mand formed in procession a"nd escorted the bodies to the military graveyard, where 
parson Anderson officiated in the burial service. Three volleys were fired over the bodies 
as they were laid in their graves, and the last solemn rites were ended. The band, that 
before led the measured, solemn steps of the jn-ocession to the funeral dirge and dead 
marcli, now moved away gaily, reviving the tliduglitful, and recalling to the duties and 
obligations of life tho.se who liad not yet finished their page of history. 

On Friday the renuuns of Lieutenant Chase were consigned to their resting place by 
the brethren of the Masonic fraternity attached to the command, together with a few 
from the city. The deceased was a Royal Arch Mason, but the small number of that 
grade in attendance rendered the adojitin'n cjf the Master Mason's burial service necessarv. 
At the solicitation of the brethren, Sir Kniglit Frank Fuller, Secretarv of the Territory, 
officiated as W. M., and Colonel Evans, of the Second Cavalry, as :Marshal. Chief Ju's- 
tice Kinney and United States Marshal Gibbs walked in the p"rocession, win 



altogether of some twenty juembers. 



which consisted 
The services at the grave were of a highly impress- 



180 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

ive character, and were witnessed by nearly the whole command, together with ni;merons 
citizens. At the close of the solemnities, the fraternity changed their position, while a 
dirge was performed by the band, and gave place to a cletail of forty-eignt soldiers, who 
fired three volleys over the grave. The procession then retiirned to camp in reversed 
order. 

THE COMMANDEB'S CONGRATULATIONS TO THE TROOPS. 

Yesterday afternoon, while the Volunteers were out on dress parade, the following 
order was read by Adjutant Ustick : 

"Headquarters District of Utah, 
Camp Douglas, U. T., February 6, 1868. 

"The Colonel commanding lias the pleasure of congratulating the troops of this post 
upon the brilliant victory achieved at the battle of Bear River, Idaho Territory. 

"After a rapid march of four nights in intensely cold weather, through deep snow and 
drifts, which you endui-ed without murmur or complaint, even when some of your num- 
ber were frozen with cold, and faint with hunger and fatigue, you met an enemy who 
liave heretolore, on two occasions, defied and defeated regular troops, and who have for 
the last fifteen years been the terror of the emigrants — men, women, and children — and 
citizens of those valleys, murdering and robbing them witliout fear of punishment. 

"At daylight, on the twenty-ninth of January, I860, you encountered the enemy, 
greatly your superior in numbers, and had a desperate battfe. Continuing with unflinch- 
ing courage for over four hours you completely cut him to pieces, captured his property 
and arms, destroyed his stronghold, and burned his lodges. 

" The long list "of the killed and wounded is the most fitting eulogy on your courage 
and bravery. The Colonel commanding returns you his thanks. The gallant officers 
and men who were engaged in this battle, without invidious distinction, merit the high- 
est praise. Your uncomplaining endurance and unexampled conduct on the field, as 
well as your thoughtful care and kindness for the wounded, is worthy of emulation. 
While we I'ejoice at the brilliant victory you have achieved over your savage foe, it is 
meet that we do honor to the memory of our brave comrades, the heroic men who fell, 
fighting to maintain the supremacj' of our arms. We deeply mourn their death, and 
acknowledge their valor. 

"While the jieoj^le of California will regret their loss, they will do honor to every 
officer and soldier who has 1\v his heroism added new laurels to the fair escutcheon of 
the State. 

"By order of Colonel Connor. 

"(Signed) WM. D. USTICK, 

"First Lieut, and Adjutant, Tliird Infantry, C. V., Acting Assistant Adjutant-General." 

What names have been particularly mentioned in the official returns of the expedition 
to General Wright, the commander of the Pacific Department, has not transpired, but 
in an address to his troops, who so valiantly fought, and who carry with them from the 
field so many evidences of the bloody struggle, the commander could not well have 
made signal mention of particular persons. There is nothing but evidences of bravery 
everywhere, and one man was as much exposed as the other. Officers and men stood 
bravely to their task, and as a body deserve the best of the State they represent. In 
addition to the names I mentioned, it will not he invidious to give the name of Maior 
P. A. Gallagher as an officer -who particularly distinguished himself in the battle. He 
Avas there without a command — as a volunteer aid tothe commander — and yet, though 
unattached to any particular body of Volunteers, he led fearlessly on to their task sev- 
eral detachments Who were temporarily assigned to his leadership, and, when relieved 
from those duties, was seen riding everywhere, up and down, at the co^jimand of ))oth 
Major McGarry and Colonel Connor. 1 know that both of these veteran officers are 
much pleased with the services of the young Major on that occasion. 

When the fight was over, and several of the "officers were together, the Commander 
acknowledged and coniplimented him on his gallant services. He now lies in Major 
McGarry's quarters; but, with proper care and discretion on his part, will probably be 
able to report for duty in the course of a few weeks. In my last I gave instances of per- 
sonal coolness and daring; I should have added one other in favor of Major Gallagher. 
An Indian had been doing considerable harm to the command, and evidently was enjoying 
his labors free from danger. The Colonel, annoyed by the savage's success, called to the 
Major to shoot him. In a moment the Major was after him, and shot him down with 
his revolver, in the face of his red brethren, who had apparently singled out the gallant 
oflicer for their fire. As he wheeled his horse, the Major's cap blew off, and he coolly 
dismounted, picked it up, and remounted. Seeing that Indian crowd preparing for the 
^Major the Colonel shouted to him to take care, and'before the Indian triggers were touched 
tlie Colonel ordered the men to fire upon them, and saved the Major. 

In terminating my letters on the battle of Bear River, and its various and multifarious 
sequels, it is proper" to say that whatever may Ije thduglit of it aljroad, there is but one 
sentiment here — it was a" desperate fight, an"(l one that reflects the highest credit ui)on 
the entire expedition. The Colonel exhibited high qualities of command, and his perfect 
coolness and bravery are the universal theme of praise. Possibly, some might have been 
better pleased with" less exposure of their command; but I have the best authority for 
saying it was the call of duty and not indifi'erence. It is a fact worthy of mention that 



SECOND KEGIMENT OF CAVALRY. 181 

no soldier there ever saw more deadly foes than those that greeted the Volunteers as they 
approached the Indian ravine. Now that the battle is won, and the testimony of tlie 
Volunteers' undisputed bi'averv is engraved in history, it can injure nothing to admit 
tliat so deadly were the first volleys of the Indians, and so little could be done in return 
with a sneaking, lurking, concealed foe, that had the order l)een given to " I'etire," it could 
scarcely have l)cen done without a demoralizing cHcrt, if not worse. Coolly, therefore, the 
Colonel sat, almost motionless, on his charger, within easy distance of the Indian ritles, 
watching the progress of the light, and giving his orders. He came out untouched, though 
death was everywhere around him in close proximity ; and probably a portion of his safety 
may be attributed to the Indians mistaking Lieutenant Chase for liim. The Lieutenant's 
horse had more attractive trappings, and naay have drawn more attention. The coolness 
of Major McGarry was conspicuous. In brief, every officer behaved gallantly, and every 
man fought well. Peace to the ashes of the fallen, and honors for the living, is the sin- 
cere wish of 

VERITE. 

Remarks on return of Company D, Second Cavalry, for April, 186S. — 
Left Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, Cal., for Owens River and Valley, 
April 12, 1863. Arrived at Keysville, on Kern River, April 18, 1863. 
Heard that a large party of Indians were encamped a few miles above, 
and at 2 o'clock in the morning of the next day surrounded their camp, 
and killed thirty -five of them; not a soldier injured. Moved on for 
Camp Independence, where we arrived on Friday, April twenty-fourth. 
Distance traveled, from two hundred and fifty to two hundred and sev- 
enty-five miles. Went on an Indian scout on Saturday, and followed 
them for two days, but without success. 

Remarks on Return of Company E, Second Cavalry, for April, 1863. — 
Company arrived at Camp Independence, Owens River Valley, April 4, 
1863. Company left Camp Independence, April 9, 1863, and attacked a 
large body of Indians near Big Pine Creek, supported by Company G, 
same regiment. One man of Company E slightly wounded. 

Remarks on Return of Company G, Second Cavalry, for April, 1863. — 
Thirty miles north of the post, found a large body of Indians, strongly 
posted in the mountains. Skirmished all the afternoon, and drove them 
from their position back into the Sierra Nevada, killing and wounding 
several. Private Thomas Spratt was dangerously shot in the head. 
Command absent from the post eleven days. 

Remarks on Return of Company M, Second Cavalry, for April, 1863. — 
The company has traveled four hundred and twenty-five miles in the 
saddle during the past month. Had three engagements with Indians 
during the month, winning each fight. Left Camp Douglas on the twen- 
tieth instai^t, and arrived at the post on the twenty-sixth instant. 
During the year just ended, in which this company has performed duty 
in Nevada and Utah Territories, it has traveled over twenty-six hundred 
miles of a direct march, had four Indian battles (Bear River, U. T., 
among the number), and made treaty with Winnemucca, chief of the 
Piute tribe, on Truckee River, near Pyramid Butte. 

Remarks on Return of Company D, Second Cavalry, for May, 1863. — 
May 3d. — Lieutenant Geo. D. French and twenty men of the company 
absent after Indians; found a band and attacked them with seven men, 
killing one and mortally wounding three. 

May 14th. — Captain McLaughlin absent until twenty-first instant in 
search of "Joaquin -Jim" and band. Destroyed his camp, the Indians 
fleeing to the mountains. 

May 31st. — Sergeant McLaughlin absent to meet Indian chief, "Capt. 

George." Returned with him. May 22, 1863. The company', during 

the month, has performed several severe marches in the mountains, 

sufi:ering much for want of water and rations. These marches have 

13"=^ 



182 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

been performed on foot, it being impossible to use horses, owing to the 
rough character of the country; but their labors, coupled with that of 
the other troops in the valley, have been crowned with success, result- 
ing, as they have, in the subjugation of the Indians, and terminating 
thus speedily a war which promised to be of much longer duration. 

Remarks on Return of Company E, Second Cavalry, for May, 1863. — 
Between the tenth and twelfth instant some twenty-five or thirty 
Indians were taken prisoners at Big Pine Creek and sent to Camp 
Independence, by order of Captain M. A. McLaughlin. 

Remarks on Return of Company K, Second Cavalry, for May, 1863. — 
On May first, pursuant to orders from Major Gallagher, at Fort Ruby, 
Nev., Captain S. P. Smith left Fort Ruby with company to march 
against the Indians committing depredations on the overland mail route. 
May second. Lieutenant Quinn, with his detachment, joined the com- 
pany at Shell Creek. May fourth, forty miles south of Shell Creek, 
had a fight with the Indians, killing twenty-nine. Private .John L. Cree 
was slightly wounded by an arrow in the back. May sixth had another 
fight with Indians in Cedar Swamp, fifty miles south of Spring Valley 
Station; killed twenty-three Indians. Arrived at Fort Ruby on May 
tenth, after traveling a distance of two hundred and fifty miles. 

Remarks on Return of Company L, Second Cavalry, for May, 1863. — 
A detachment of four men of the company, in command of Orderly 
Sergeant Henry C. Church, came upon a party of fourteen Indians near 
headwaters of Owens River. Attacking them they killed four, and the 
balance, retreating into the rocks, made their escape. The company has 
been scouting constantly, and has destroyed about three hundred 
bushels of seed " cached" near Bishop Creek and vicinity. Most of 
the caches were found by Sergeant Beebe. 

Remarks on Return of Company K, Second Cavalry, for June, 1863. — 
On the fifteenth of June, pursuant to orders from Colonel Connor, at 
Camp Douglas, Captain Smith left Deep Creek and traveled to Govern- 
ment Springs with company, a distance of one hundred and ten miles. 
On the morning of the twentieth surprised a camp of Indians; killed 
ten. Found an overland horse in their possession. 

Remarks on Return of Company M, Second Cavalry, for June, 1863. — 
On Jvine 9, 1863, Captain Price, Lieutenant Conrad, and sixty men of 
Company M, Second Cavalry, California Volunteers, left this post by 
order of commanding officer at Fort Bridger, on an Indian scout two 
hundred miles north, to headwaters of Snake River. Returned to this 
post on twenty-first, having traveled over four hundred miles. Cap- 
tured forty-nine Shoshone Indians without loss or accident to the troops. 
Brought the Indians to this post. 

Remarks on Return of Company D, Second Cavalry, for July, 1863. — 
Pursuant to instructions received from Headquarters Department of the 
Pacific, a detachment of seventy men, composed of Companies D, E, aixl 
G, Second Cavalry, California Volunteers, and twenty-two men belong- 
ing to the Fourth Infantry, California Volunteers, left this camp (Inde- 
pendence), July 11, 1863, with the Indians captured near this place, 
numbering about one thousand (all under the command of Captain 
McLaughlin), for San Sebastian Reservation, near Fort Tejon, Cal. 

Remarks on return of Company F, Second Cavalry, for August, 1863. — 
Left Camp Union, Cal., July 28, 1863, per Special Order of General 
commanding Department of the Pacific, and arrived at Camp Bidwell, 



SECOND REGIMENT OF CAVALRY. 183 

Butte County, Cal., July 31, 1863, to remain there till further orders, 
in the meantime affording protection to the whites, and collecting the 
friendly Indians together in this section and protecting them. 

Remarks on Return of Company F, Second Cavalry, for Se-ptemher, 1863. 
In compliance with Post Orders Nos. 6 and 7, left Camp Bidwell, Butte 
County, California, September 4, 1863, having under my command 
twenty-three men and horses of Company F, Second Cavalry, California 
Volunteers, and four hundred and sixty-one Indians, to remove them to 
Indian reservation at Round Valley, Mendocino County, California, 
arriving there September 18, 1863, with two hundred and seventy-seven 
Indians. Left one hundred and fifty on east side of the mountains, 
they being unable to travel. Thirty-two died en route and two escaped. 
Left Fort Wright, Round Valley, September 21, 1863, and arrived at 
Camp Bidwell, Butte County, California, September 24, 1863. 

Remarks on Return of Company F, Second Cavalry, for November, 
1863. — In obedience to Special Order from General commanding De- 
partment, left Camp Bidwell, Cal., November nineteenth, with sixteen 
men of Company F, Second Cavalry, California Volunteers, to assist 
Special Agent to recapture runaway Indians from Round Valley Reser- 
vation. Passed through Pentz, Yankee Hill, Cherokee, Hubbards, 
Oregon City, Oroville, and Henshaw's Ranch (all in Butte County). 
Returned to Camp Bidwell on the twentj^-third of November, capturing 
twenty Indians en route, having marched over a distance of one hun- 
dred and thirty miles. Left Camp Bidwell November twenty-fifth, en 
route to Indian Reservation, Round Valley, with Indians captured 
(going by way of Tehama). Arrived there on the twenty-eighth, turn- 
ing over Indians to the Supervisor. 

Extract from a letter of Major Henry D. Wallen, Seventh U. S. In- 
fantry, commanding Fort Sumner, New Mexico, to General Carleton, 
commanding Department of New Mexico: 

Headquarters Fort Sumner, New Mexico, 
December 18, 1863. 

Sir: I have the honor to report, that about 4 o'clock on the morning of the sixteenth 
instant, Mr. Labadie, Indian Agent, and the Rev. Mr. Pialon, Chaplain of the post, 
reported to me that a large number of Navajo Indians, with an immense herd of sheep, 
were at the Carretas. I immediately had tlie officers of Company D, Fifth Infantry, and 
Comjiany C, Seventh Infantry, awakened and their companies i)re]>ared to take tlie field, 
with twii ilays' rations in haversacks. lieutenant Latimer, witli ei,t;ht mounted men of 
Company B, Second California Cavalry (all the cavahy at the post), were also got in read- 
iness. Mr. Labadie, Mr. Fialon, and about thirty Apache Indians also started in pursuit. 
The companies left the post at 5: 30 a. m., for the Carretas. The mounted party, and the 
Indian Agent with his Indians, outstripped the party on foot, having taken up the Navajo 
trail on the west bank of the Pecos River, and about ten miles from the post. At a dis- 
tance of thirty-five miles in a direct line, a little north of west from Fort Sumner, they 
overtook the Navajoes, in number about one hundred and thirty, ten mounted, ancl 
twenty armed with rifles. They had five thousand two hundred and fifty-nine sheep. 
A severe contest ensued, in which the Navajoes lost twelve killed and left^ on the field, 
and a number killed and wounded who were carried off; one prisoner taken. All the 
sheep recovered, and thirteen burros, four rifles, one horse, all their provisions, blankets, 
moccasins (one hundred and fift}^ pairs), and pretty much all the effects which they had 
taken from Mr. La])adie's train, en route to this place. 

Very resiiectfuUv, your obedient servant, 

H. D. WALLEN, 
Major Seventh Infantry, IT. S. A., Commanding. 

Remarks on Return of Company F, Second Cavalry, for July, I864. — 
In obedience to instructions from General commanding District of Call- 



184 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

fornia, Captain Augustus W. Starr, commanding Company F, Second 
Cavalry, California Volunteers, left Camp Union, Cal., at 7 o'clock a. m., 
July 21, 1864, with ten men of Company F and Corporal Church of Com- 
pany D, Second Cavalry, California Volunteers, and one six-mule team, 
en route to Snellings, Merced County, Cal. Arrived there at 4 o'clock 
p. M., July twenty-fourth, and arrested William Hall, editor of the Mer- 
ced "Democrat." Returning, arrived at Stockton at 2:30 o'clock p. m., 
July twenty-fifth. At 4 o'clock p. m. left for San Francisco, per steamer, 
with the prisoner and Corporal Reynolds as guard, leaving the remain- 
der of the men to proceed overland to Camp Union. Arrived at San 
Francisco, Cal., at 3 o'clock p. m., July twenty-sixth, and delivered the 
prisoner to commanding officer at Fort Alcatraz. 

Remarlcs on Return of Company M, Second Cavalry, for August, 1864- — 
Troops returned from Salt Lake and Fort Mojave wagon road expedi- 
tion, August 30, 1864, having traveled: principal route (as measured 
by odometer), one thousand three hundred and fourteen miles; second- 
ary routes, eight hundred and twenty-nine miles; observation lines, 
five hundred and fifty-five miles; total, two thousand seven hundred 
and ninety-eight miles. Time occupied, one hundred and fourteen days. 
Country examined: that portion of Utah, California, and Arizona lying 
between 35 degrees and 41 degrees north latitude and 112 degrees and 
114 degrees west longitude from Greenwich. Report of expedition and 
map of routes not yet filed. George F. Price, Captain Second Cavalry, 
commanding expedition, and George D. Conrad, First Lieutenant Second 
Cavalry, on duty with expedition. 

Remarks on Return of Company F, Second Cavalry, for April, 1865. — 
On the twenty-fourth of April, started for Colusa and arrived there on 
April twenty-sixth. On the trip arrested a prominent traitor of Yolo 
County, and took him into camp and confined him with other prisoners 
destined to be delivered to the authorities at Camp Union, Cal. 

Remarlcs on Muster Roll of Company D, Second Cavalry, for May and 
June, 1865.— Leit Fort Bridger, Wy. T., May 17, 1865, en route eastward. 
Arrived at Fort Laramie, Wy. T., via the Cheyenne Pass route, June 5, 
1865. Distance, four hundred and fifty-seven miles. The squadron has 
been constantly on the scout since its arrival here. A detachment of 
forty-eight men from the squadron, under command of Colonel Moon- 
light, Eleventh Kansan Cavalry Volunteers, left this post June four- 
teenth, on an Indian raid. The third day out, the Colonel gave orders 
to turn the horses out to graze. There being no picket guard out, the 
Indians stampeded twenty-seven of the horses. Having no means of 
getting the saddles, bridles, and horse equipments back to this post, the 
Colonel ordered them to be burned. Two privates wounded, and six 
Indians killed. 

Remarks on Return of Comp)any B, Second Cavalry, for August, 1865. — 
The company left Gravelly Ford, Humboldt County, Nev., on the second 
day of August, 1865, on a scout for Indians. Trailed across the mount- 
ains twenty-five miles; came to the river and found a camp the Indians 
had left. Followed their trail, killed one, and captured a number of 
squaws. Returned to camp, scouting down the river; found a camp of 
hostile Indians. Killed two and wounded several more; and, in com- 
pliance Avith instructions from Headquarters District of Nevada, left 
Gravelly Ford on the twelfth day of August, 1865, for Dun Glen, and 



SECOND REGIMENT OF CAVALRY. 185 

arrived there August 21, 1865. Distance, one hundred and twenty-five 
miles. 

R&marks on Return of Company /, Second Cavalry, for August, 1865. — 
Lieutenant Tagge, with twenty-three men, returned from detached serv- 
ice on the fifth instant, from escort duty. Sergeant Stevens and twelve 
men had an engagement with the Indians in Paradise Valley, Nevada, 
on July twenty-sixth. Private Herford was killed, and privates Joshua 
C. Murphy and Thomas J. Riehl were wounded. They were reinforced 
by a Sergeant and ten men from the First Cavalry, Nevada Volunteers, 
routing the Indians, and killing twenty-one of them. On the twenty- 
second Sergeant Stevens, Corporal Rugg, and twenty-one privates joined 
the company at Camp McDermit, Nev. 

Reviarks on Return of Company M, Second Cavalry, for August, 1865. — 
The company left Camp No. 3, Little Cottonwood Creek, D. T., on the 
morning of the first instant. Struck the Platte River and marched up 
the river to the Platte bridge; thence in a northwesterly course until 
reaching the Big Horn Mountains. Crossed over this range and made 
a scout through Big Horn Valley; thence across the mountains to the 
east side, taking the north fork of Crazy Woman Creek, a southerly 
course until striking Powder River, and down it to Fort Connor. The 
squadron joined Colonel Connor's column on Clear Fork. On the 
twenty-ninth, under command of Colonel Connor, came upon the vil- 
lage of Arapahoes, on Tongue River; killed sixty-three Indians, cap- 
tured six hundred head of horses and mules, and burned their lodges 
and winter sujjplies. Thence came down Tongue River to camp. 

Remarks on Return of Company B, Second Cavalry, for September, 
1865. — In accordance with Paragraph 5, S. 0. No. 4, Headquarters 
District of Nevada, and in compliance with Paragraph 2, Orders No. 2, 
Headquarters Dun Glen, Nevada, dated August 30, 1865, a detachment 
of twenty enlisted men of Company B, Second Cavalry, California Vol- 
unteers, under command of Second Lieutenant H. C. Penwell, Second 
Cavalr}', California Volunteers, was ordered to report at Unionville to a 
citizen named Stafford, who, affording three Indian guides, went to a 
rancheria of hostile Indians, about thirty-five miles from last ^jlace, and 
found, at daybreak, the Indians, seven in number, and three squaws in 
the rancheria. Killed all the Indians, and accidentally killed the 
squaws; also destroyed a large quantity of ammunition and supplies. 
Finding no more hostile Indians in that vicinity, the detachment re- 
turned to Dun Glen. Entire distance marched, one hundred and fifty 
miles. 

Remarks on Return of Company B, Second Cavalry, for November, 
1865. — In accordance with P. 0. No. 35, dated November 12, 1865, First 
Lieutenant R. A. Osmer, Second Cavalry, California Volunteers, and 
sixty enlisted men of Company B, Second Cavalry, California Volun- 
teers, proceeded to the Black Rock Mountains on November 13, 1865, 
taking wuth them one mountain howitzer. At Willow Creek Station, 
thirty-five miles from this post (Dun Glen, Nev.), seven enlisted men, 
who were on detached service, joined company; also two citizens, and ten 
Indian warriors under command of Captain "Sou" (friendly Piute). 
On Friday, at daybreak, attacked the Indian camp five miles from Black 
Rock Mountains, and one hundred and five miles northwest of this post. 
Killed about one hundred and twenty Indians in all; of these about 
eighty were bucks, but the Indian allies could not be restrained from a 



186 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

general slaughter, neither could a squaw be distinguished from a buck 
in the general fight, and but one Indian is supposed to have escaped. 
Captured a quantity of ammunition, several guns, five Indian ponies, 
and destroyed a large lot of jDrovisions. These were the same Indians 
who killed and robbed the teamster two weeks ago, as some of his load 
was found in camp. The loss was private David W. O'Connell, killed, 
and Sergeant Lansdon and private Moon, wounded; also one horse 
wounded, but will recover. Four privates deserted the day of departure 
from this post. Detachment returned to this post at 6 o'clock a. m., 
November 20, 1865. Distance traveled, two hundred and fifty miles. 

Remarks on Return of Company B, Second Cavalry , for January , 1866. — 
Captain George D. Conrad, and thirty-seven enlisted men of Company 
B, Second Cavalry, California Volunteers, left this post (Dun Glen, Nev.) 
on the eighth instant, to scout the country in the vicinity of Paradise 
and Queens River Valleys. On the morning of the twelfth instant, dis- 
covered and attacked an Indian camp, on Fish Creek, in Queens River 
Valley, killing thirty-five Indians. Our loss was three men wounded, 
one horse killed, and seven horses wounded. Command returned to post 
on the fifteenth instant. Distance marched, two hundred and twenty 
miles. Captain Conrad, Lieutenant Osmer, and forty-eight enlisted men 
of Company B, Second Cavalry, California Volunteers, left this post on the 
twenty-fourth instant, and proceeded to scout Humboldt Valley, in the 
vicinity of Badger Ranch. On the morning of the twenty-sixth instant, 
discovered fires on the opposite side of the river. The delay in crossing 
caused by us, and high water, enabled the Indians to escape. Distance 
marched, ninety miles. 

Remarks on Return of Company K, Second Cavalry, for January, 1866. — 
According to instructions from Headquarters District of Nevada, and 
S. 0. No. 31, of December 20, 1865, I left Fort Churchill, Nev., Decem- 
ber 21, 1865, with nineteen men of company, to execute orders at Dun 
Glen, Nev. After four days' march, I arrived at Blake's Station, where 
the citizens turned over to me a notorious Indian called " Black Rock 
Tom." After being put in charge of the guard, he tried to escape, and 
was shot dead by some of the command. 

Remarks on Return of Company F, Second Cavalry, for February, 
1866. — Left Castle Rock, Nevada, with Major Smith's command on 
February nineteenth, in pursuit of Indians. Discovered the Indian 
camp after traveling five days in a northeast course, eighty miles from 
Fort Bidwell, Cal., at Rock Canon, Guano Valley, Nev. The attack on 
the Indian camp was made at 9:30 o'clock a. m. on the morning of the 
fifteenth, the fight continuing till 3:30 o'clock p. m. As the troops 
charged on the camp the Indians retreated to Rock Canon and Blufi". 
The chief. Smoke Creek Jim, was killed at the commencement of the 
fight. Found on the field, at the close of the fight, eighty-one warriors. 
Killed fifteen squaws and papooses in the rocks, it being impossible to 
distinguish one sex from the other. Fifteen Indians, supposed to be 
badly wounded, hid in caves and escaped the following night. During 
the action, nineteen squaws and papooses were taken prisoners and 
placed under guard. On breaking up camp on the morning of the 
twentieth, they were set at liberty and supplied with thirty days' rations 
of dried beef. Captured seventy-five horses, belonging to citizens of 
Superior Valley, Cal. The whole Indian camp and equipage, and about 
three tons of dried beef, were committed to the flames. The camp was 



SECOND REGIMENT OF CAVALRY. 187 

composed of thirty-five wickiups. The band of Indians was composed 
of Piutes, Bannocks, and Snakes, who had been committing depreda- 
tions in this section of the country for the past four years. 

Remarls on Return of Company D, Second Cavalry, for March, 1866. — 
Lieutenant George H. Robinson, with thirty-three enlisted men, returned 
March 4, 1866, from scout after Indians, having had an engagement on 
the fifteenth of February, 1866, at or near Rock Canon, Nev., killing a 
large number of Indians, and losing one man. 

General Orders,) Headquarters District of Nevada, 

No. 8. f Camp McGarry, Nevada, December 31, 1866. 

1. The successful operations of the military of this district during the year 1866 deserve 
to be commended by the commanding officer, as it is believed they will bear favorable 
comparison with any that have been carried on against hostile Indians in any section of 
the Union. Several bands have been entirely broken up, and the country has been 
rendered safe for travelers and settlers. A brief summary will show what these operations 
have been. 

2. On the eleventh of January, 1866, Captain George D. Conrad, with thirty-tive men 
of Companv B, and twenty-five men of Company I, under Lieutenant Duncan, Second 
California Cavalry Volunteers, attacked a band of hostile Indians on the west side of 
ers. Corporal Biswell and private Allen of Company I, and privates Thomas A. Dutiield, 
Queens River, near Fish Creek. Thirty-five Indians were killed and nine taken prison- 
John Riley, and Richard Shultz of Company B, Second California Cavalry, were wounded. 
Two horses were killed and nine wounded.' 

3. On the fifteenth of February, 1866, a detachment under command of Major Samuel 
P. Smith, Second California Cavalry Volunteers, composed of thirty-two men of Com- 
pany D, and nineteen men of Company F, same regiment, and thirty citizens, fought the 
Indians near Rock Canon — one hundred and fifteen Indians were killed and nineteen 
captured. Private Austin of Company D was killed. Major Smith, privates Resler, 
Grimshaw, Rhuman, and Belta of Company D, privates Mills and Smith of Company F, 
were wounded. Major Mellon, Captain Starr, and Lieutenant Robinson, Second Cali- 
fornia Cavalry, accompanied Major Smith. Sixty horses, which had been stolen from 
the settlers, were recovered, and a large amount of Indian property was destroyed. 

4. On the. seventh of March, 1866, Sergeant James T. Edwards, with eight men of Com- 
pany I, Second California Cavalry Volunteers, killed six Indians in Paradise Valley. 

5. On the eighteenth of May, 1866, one hundred and twenty Indian jirisoners were 
brought in to Fort Churchill, and delivered to Brevet-Colonel A. G. Brackett, Major First 
U. S. Cavalry, Commanding Post. They were subsequently turned over to the Superin- 
tendent of Indian Affairs for Nevada, in obedience to orders from Department Head- 
quarters. 

***************** 

(Signed:) 

A. G. BRACKETT, 
Major First Regiment, U. S. Cavalry, Commanding District. 

The following are the stations of headquarters and the different com- 
panies as shown by the monthly returns and muster rolls on the last 
days of the months: 

FIELD, STAFF, AND BAND. 

Camp Alert, Cal September 30, 186L 

Camp Alert, Cal.... October 31, 1861. 

Camp Alert, Cal November 30, 1861. 

Camp Alert, Cal December 31, 1861. 

Camp Alert, Cal January 31, 1862. 

Camp Alert, Cal February 28, 1862. 

No reports from February 28, 1862, to June 30, 1864. 

€amp Conness, I. T June 30, 1864. 

Camp Conness, I. T July 31, 1864. 

Camp Conness, I. T August 31, 1864. 

Camp Conness, I. T September 30, 1864. 

Camp Union, Cal October 31, 1864. 

Camp Union, Cal November 30, 1864. 

Camp Union, Cal 1 December 31, 1864. 

Camp Union, Cal Januarv 31, 1865. 

Camp Union, Cal Februar'v 28, 1865. 

Camp Union, Cal March 31, 1865. 

Camp Union, Cal April 30, 1865. 

Camp Union, Cal May 31, 1865. 



188 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

Camp Union, Cal June 30, 1865s. 

Camp Union, Cal July 31, 1865. 

Camp Union, Cal August 31, 1865. 

Camp Union, Cal September 30, 1865> 

Camp Union, Cal October 31, 1865. 

Camp Union, Cal November 30, 1865. 

Camp Union, Cal December 31, 186.5. 

Camp Union, Cal January 31, 1866. 

Camp Union, Cal February 28, 1866. 

Camp Union, Cal March 31, 1866. 

COMPANY A. 

Camp Alert, Cal October 31 

Camp Alert, Cal November 30, 

Fort Churchill, Nev December 31 

Fort Churchill, Nev January 31 

Fort Churchill, Nev February 28 

No record from February, 1862, to J uly 31, 1863. 

Camp No. 26, Utah Column, near Fort Rubv, Nev. Julv 31 

Camp Douglas, U. T 1 October 31 

Camp Douglas, U. T November 30 

Camp Douglas, U. T December 31 

Camp Douglas, U. T January 31 

Camp Douglas, U. T March 31 

Camp Conness, I. T August 31 

Camp Douglas, U. T September 30 

Camp at Lovelands, U. T : October 31 

Camp at Desert Wells, Nev __. November 30 

Camp Union, Cal December 31 

Camp Union , Cal January 31 

Camp Union, Cal February 28 

Camp Union, Cal March 31 

Camp Union, Cal April 30 

Camp Union, Cal May 31 

Camp Union, Cal June 30 

Camp Union, Cal July 31 

Camp Union, Cal ^ August 31 

Fort Miller, Cal ! September 30 

Fort Miller, Cal October 31 

Camp Babbitt, Cal N ovember 30 

Camp Bablntt, Cal December 31 

Camp Babbitt, Cal February 28 

COMPANY B. 

Camp Alert, Cal October 31 

Camp Alert, Cal . November 30 

Camp Alert, Cal December 31 

Camp Drum, Cal. . January 31 

With Colonel Carleton en route to New Mexico February 28 

No record of the stations of this comjiany from February 28, 1862, to January 31 
but most of the time it was en route to New Mexico. 

Fort Sumner, N . M Januarv 31 

Fort Sumner, N. M February 28 

Fort Sumner, N. M March 31 

Fort Sumner, N. M April 30 

Fort Sumner, N. M Mav 31 

Fort Sumner, N. M June 30 

Fort Sumner, N. M July 31 

Fort Sumner, N. M August .31 

Fort Sumner, N. M September 30 

Fort Sumner, N. M October 31 

Fort Sumner, N. M November 30 

Anton Chico, N. M December 31 

Fort Sumner, N . M Januarv 31^ 

Fort Sumner, N. M Februarv 29^ 

Company en route to Drum Barracks, Cal March 31 

Pimo Village, A. T., en route to Drum Barracks, Cal. April 30, 

Drum Barracks, Cal May 31 

DritVu Barracks, Cal June 30 

Cucamonga Ranch, Cal July 31 

Cucamonga Ranch, Cal August .31 

Drum Barracks, Cal... September 30 



SECOND REGIMENT OF CAVALRY. 189 

Camp Union, Cal. December 31, 1864. 

Camp Union, Cal January 31, 1865. 

Camp Union, Cal February 28, 1865. 

< 'amp Union, Cal March 31, 1865. 

Camp Union, Cal April 30, 1865. 

Camp Union, Cal May 31, 1865. 

In the held. Dun Glen, Nev June 30, 1865. 

In the field, Gravelly Ford, Humboldt River, Nev July 31, 1865. 

In the field, Dun Glen, Nev August 31, 1865. 

Camp No. 64, near Denver City, Col September 30, 1865. 

In the field. Dun Glen, Nev September 30, 1865. 

Dun Glen, Nev October 31, 1865. 

Dun Glen, Nev. November 30, I860. 

Dun Glen, Nev. December 31, 1865. 

Dun Glen! Nev.". January 31, 1866. 

Dun Glen, Nev. February 28, 1866. 

In the field, Black Rock Mountains, Pine Forest District, Nev March 31, 1866. 

Dun Glen, Nev April 30, 1866. 



COMPANY C. 



1861. 



Camp Alert, Cal October 31, 

Camp Alert, Cal . November 30, 1861. 

Fort Crook, Cal December 31, 1861. 

Fort Crook. Cal January 31, 1862. 

Fort Crook, Cal February 28, 1862. 

Fort Crook, Cal March 31, 1862. 

Fort Crook, Cal April 30, 1862. 

Fort Crook, Cal May 31, 1862. 

Fort Crook, Cal June 30, 1862. 

Fort Crook, Cal July 31, 1862. 

Fort Crook, Cal August 31, 1862. 

Fort Crook, Cal. September 30, 1862. 

Fort Crook, CaL October 31, 1862. 

Fort Crook, Cal November 30, 1862. 

Fort Crook, Cal December 31, 1862. 

Fort Crook, Cal January 31, 1863. 

Fort Crook, Cal February 28, I860. 

Fort Crook, Cal March 31, 1863. 

Fort Crook, Cal April 30, 1863. 

Fort Crook, Cal May 31, 1863. 

Fort Crook, Cal June 30, 186.3. 

Fort Crook, Cal July 31, 1863. 

Fort Crook, Cal August 31, 1863. 

Fort Crook, Cal September 30, 1863. 

Fort Crook, CaL October .31, 186:3. 

Fort Crook, Cal November 30, 1863. 

Fort Crook, Cal December 31, 1863. 

Fort Crook, Cal January 31, 1864. 

Fort Crook, Cal February 29, 1864. 

Fort Crook, Cal -.- March 31, 1864. 

Fort Crook, Cal April 30, 1864. 

Fort Crook, Cal May 31, 1864. 

Fort Crook, Cal June 30, 1864. 

Fort Crook, Cal July 31, 1864. 

Fort Crook, Cal August 31, 1864. 

Fort Crook, Cal September 30, 1864. 

Fort Crook, Cal October 31, 1864. 

Fort Crook, Cal November 30, 1864. 

Fort Crook, Cal December 31, 1864. 

Fort Crook, Cal January 31, 1865. 

Fort Crook, Cal February 28, 1865. 

Fort Crook, Cal March 31, 1865. 

Fort Crook, Cal April 30, 1865. 

Fort Crook, Cal May 31, 1865. 

Fort Crook, Cal June 30, 1865. 

FortBidwell, Cal August 7, 1865. 

Susanville, "Cal September 1, 1865. 

Fort Crook, Cal 1 September 30, 1865. 

Fort Crook, Cal October 30, 1865. 

Fort Crook, Cal November 30, 1865. 

Fort Crook, Cal December 31, 1865. 

Fort Crook, Cal January 31, 1866. 

Fort Crook, Cal February 28, 1866. 

Fort Crook, Cal March 31, 1866. 

Fort Crook, Cal . April 30, 1866. 



190 KECOED OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

COMPANY D. 

Camp Alert, Gal October 31, 1861. 

Camp Alert, Cal November 30, 1861. 

Camp Alert, Cal December 31, 1861. 

Camp Drmn, Cal January 31, 1862. 

Camp Driim, Cal, ,. February 28, 1862, 

No record of the stations of this company from February 28, 1862, to April 30, 1863. 

Camp Independence, Owens River Valley, Cal. April 30, 1863. 

Camp Independence, Owens River Valley, Cal. May 31, 1863. 

Camp Independence, Owens River Valley, Cal. June 30, 1863. 

Camp Independence, Owens River Valley, Cal. July 31, 1863. 

FortTejon, Cal.... August 31, 1863. 

FortTejon, Cal September 30, 1863. 

FortTejon, Cal October 31, 1863. 

FortTejon, Cal November 30, 1863. 

FortTejon, Cal. December 31, 1863. 

FortTejon, Cal January 31, 1864. 

FortTejon, Cal February 29, 1864. 

Camp Union, Cal March 31, 1864. 

Camp Union, Cal April 30, 1864. 

Camp Union, Cal May 31, 1864. 

Camp Union, Cal. June 30, 1864. 

Camp Union, Cal July 31, 1864. 

Camp Union, Cal ..- August 31, 1864. 

Camp Union, Cal September 30, 1864. 

Camp Union, Cal October 31, 1864. 

Camp Union, Cal November 30, 1864. 

Camp Union, Cal. December 31, 1864. 

Camp Union, Cal January .SI, 1865. 

Camp Union, Cal February 28, 1865. 

Camp Jackson, near lone City, Cal March 31, 1865. 

Camp Jackson, near lone City, Cal April 30, 1865. 

Pierson's Ranch, Colusa County, Cal -. May 31, 1865. 

Camp Waite, Antelope Creek, near Red Bluff, Cal June 30, 1865. 

Smoke Creek, Nev Julv 31, 1865. 

Smoke Creek, Nev August 31, 1865. 

Smoke Creek, Nev September 30, 1865. 

Smoke Creek, Nev October 31, 1865. 

Smoke Creek, Nev. November 30, 1865. 

Smoke Creek, Nev. December 31, 1865. 

Smoke Creek, Nev January 31, 1866. 

Smoke Creek, Nev February 28, 1866. 

Smoke Creek, Nev March 31, 1866. 

Smoke Creek, Nev April 30, 1866. 

COMPANY E. 

Camp Alert, Cal October 31, 1861. 

Camp Alert, Cal November 30, 1861. 

Fort Humboldt, Cal December 31, 1861. 

Fort Humboldt, Cal Januarv 31, 1862. 

Fort Humboldt, Cal February 28, 1862. 

There are no records of the stations of this companv from Februarv 28, 1862, to April 
3.0, 1863. 

Big Pine Creek, near Camp Independence, Cal April 30, 1863. 

Camp Independence, Cal. May 31, 1863. 

Camp Independence, Cal. June 30, 1863. 

FortTejon, Cal July 31, 1863. 

Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, Cal August 31, 1863. 

Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, Cal. Septeml)er 30, 1863. 

Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, Cal. October 31, 1863. 

Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, Cal November 30, 1863. 

Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, Cal. December 31, 1863. 

Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, Cal January 31, 1864. 

Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, Cal February 29, 1864. 

Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, Cal March 31, 1864. 

Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, Cal April 30, 1864. 

Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, Cal May 31, 1864. 

Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, Cal. June .SO, 1864. 

Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, Cal July .SI, 1864. 

Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, Cal August 31, 1864. 

Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, Cal. September 30, 1864. 

Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, Cal. October 31, 1864. 



SECOND REGIMENT OF CAVALRY. 191 

Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, Cal November 30, 1864. 

Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, Cal. December 31, 1864. 

Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, Cal January 31, 1865. 

Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, Cal February 28, 1865. 

Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, Cal March 31, 1865. 

Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, Cal April 30, 1865. 

Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, Cal ....May 31, 1865. 

Camii r.alibitt, near Visalia, Cal June 30, 1865. 

Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, Cal July 31, 1865. 

Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, Cal August 31, 1865. 

Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, Cal September 30, 1865. 

Camp Babbitt, near Visalia, Cal. October 31, 1865. 

Camp Independence, Cal November 30, 1865. 

Camp Independence, Cal December 31, 1865. 

Camp Independence, Cal January 31, 1866. 

Camp Independence, Cal February 28, 1866. 

Camp Independence, Cal ...March 31, 1866. 

Camp Independence, Cal ...April 30, 1866. 

COMPANY F. 

Camp Alert, Cal October 31, 1861. 

Benicia Arsenal, Cal November 30, 1861. 

Benicia Arsenal, Cal. December 31, 1861. 

Benicia Arsenal, Cal January 31, 1862. 

Benicia Arsenal, Cal February 28, 1862. 

No record from February, 1862, to April, 1863. 

Camp Union, Cal .April 30, 1863. 

Camp Union, Cal May 31, 1863. 

Camp Union, Cal June 30, 1863. 

CampBidwell, Butte County, Cal July 31, 1863. 

Camp Bidwell, Butte County, Cal August 31, 1863. 

Camp Bidwell, Butte County, Cal September 30, 1863. 

CampBidwell, Butte County, Cal October 31, 1863. 

Camp Bidwell, Butte County, Cal November 30, 1863. 

CampBidwell, Butte Countv, Cal December 31, 1863. 

Camp Bidwell, Butte County, Cal January 31, 1864. 

Camp Bidwell, Butte County, Cal February 29, 1864. 

Camp Bidwell, Butte Countv, Cal March 31, 1864. 

Camp Union, Cal 1 April 30, 1864. 

Camp Union, Cal May 31, 1864. 

Camp Union, Cal. June 30, 1864. 

Camp Union, Cal July 31, 1864. 

Camp Union, Cal August 31, 1864. 

Camp Union, Cal September 30, 1864. 

Bear Valley, Cal October 31, 1864. 

Cariip Union, Cal November 30, 1864. 

Camp Union, Cal January 1, 1865. 

Camp Union, Cal February 1, 1865. 

lone Valley, Cal Marcli 1, 1865. 

Camp Union, Cal April 1, 1865. 

Colusa, Cal. May 1, 1865. 

Montgomery Creek, Shasta County, Cal., en route for Fort Crook, Shasta County, 

Cal. . - June 1,1865. 

Fort Crook, Shasta County, Cal. July 1, 1865. 

Fort Bidwell, Si^kivou County, Cal August 1, 1865. 

Fort Bidwell, Siskivou County, Cal. September 1, 1865. 

Fort Bidwell, Siskiyou County, Cal. September 30, 1865. 

Fort Bidwell, Siskiyou County, Cal October 31, 1865. 

Smoke Creek, Nevada ". December 1, 1865. 

Fort Crook, Shasta County, Cal December 31, 1865. 

Fort Crook, Shasta County, Cal. . January 31, 1866. 

Fort Bidwell, Siskiyou County, Cal. March 1, 1866. 

Fort Bidwell, Siskiyou County, Cal April 1, 1866. 

Fort Bidwell, Siskiyou County, Cal May 1, 1866. 

Goose Lake, Cal. --" .' May 31, 1866. 

COMPANY G. 

Camp Alert October 31, 1861. 

Camp Alert November 30, 1861. 

Camp Alert .• December 31, 1861. 

Camp Drum, Cal. January 31, 1862. 

Camp Latham, Cal February 28, 1862. 



damp Independence, Owens Valley, Cal April 30 

(lamp Independence, Owens Valley, Cal Mav 31 

Camp Independence, Owens Valley, Cal July 1 

Camp Independence, Owens Valley, Cal August! 

Camp Leonard, Cal September 1 

Camp Leonard, Cal '- October 1 

Port Tejon, Cal. November 1 

Fort Tejon, Cal. December 1 

Port Tejon, Cal January 1 

Camp Balil)itt, Cal February 1 

Camp Lalibitt, Cal. March 1 

Camp Babbitt, Cal April 1 

Camp Babbitt, Cal May 1 

Camp Babbitt, Cal. June 1 

Canqi Bal)bitt, Cal. July 1 

Cam] I l>ai>V)itt, Cal August 1 

San Luis Ranche, en route from Camp Babbitt to Camp Union, Cal August 31 

("amp Union, Cal October 1 

Camp LTnion, Cal Noveniber 1 

Camp Union, Cal November 30 

Camp Union, Cal. December 31 

Camp Union, Cal February 1 

Camp Union, Cal February 28 

Cami) near Hornitos, Mariposa County, Cal Marcli 31 

Camp Union, Cal April 30 

Camp Union, Cal May 31 

Camp Union, Cal June 30 

(^amp Union, Cal July 31 

( 'amp Union , Cal August 31 

Benicia, Cal September 30, 

Camp Union, Cal ^..-.October 31 

Camp Union, Cal November 30 

Camp Union, Cal December 31 

COMPANY H. 



Camp Alert, Cal October 31, 186L 

Camp Alert, Cal November 30, 1861. 

Camp Alert, Cal December 31, 1861. 

Fort Churchill, Nev January 31, 1862. 

Fort Churchill, Nev February 28, 1862. 

No record of the stations of this company from February 28, 1862, to April 30, 1864, can 
be found. 

Camp Relief, U. T April 30, 1864. 

Camp Conness, I. T. May 31, 1864. 

Camp Conness, I. T. June 30, 1864. 

Camp Conness, I. T. July 31, 1864. 

Camp Conness, 1. T. August 31, 1864. 

Camp Douglas, U. T September 30, 1864. 

Canip No. 4, en route from Camp Douglas, U. T., to Camp Union, Cal... October 31, 1864. 

Fort Churchill, Nev., en route to Camp Union, Cal November 30, 1864. 

Camp Union, Cal December 31, 1864. 

Camp Union, Cal January 31, 1865. 

Camp Union, Cal February 28, 1865. 

Camp Union, Cal March 31, 1865. 

Provost Barracks, Sacramento, Cal. April 30, 1865. 

Provost Barracks, Sacramento, Cal. May 31, 1865. 

Provost Barracks, Sacramento, Cal July 31, 1865. 

Los Angeles, en route to Drum Barracks, Cal September 30, 1865. 

Drum Barracks, Cal i October 31, 1865. 

Drum Barracks, Cal November 30, 1865. 

Drum Barracks, Cal December 31, 1865. 

Drum Barracks, Cal February 1, 1866. 

COMPANY I. 

Camp Alert, Cal October 31, 1861. 

Camp Alert, Cal November 30, 1861. 

Camp Alert, Cal .^ December 31, 1862. 

Cam]) Di-um, Cal *. January 31, 1862. 

Camp Latham, Cal February 28, 1862. 



SECOND REGIMENT OP CAVALRY. 193 

No record of stations occupied by the company from February 28, 1862, to A])ril 'SO, 
1863, can be found. 

Camp Babbitt, Cal April 30, 1863. 

Camp Babbitt, Cal Mav 31, 1868. 

Camp Babbitt, Cal June 30, ISas. 

Camp Babt)itt, Cal July .31, 1863. 

Camp Babbitt, Cal August 31, 1863. 

Camp Babbitt, Cal October 1, 186.3. 

Camp Babbitt, Cal November 1, 1863. 

Camp Babbitt, Cal December 1, 1863. 

Camp Babbitt, Cal January 1, 1864. 

St. Luis Camp, Cal January 31, 1864. 

Benicia Barracks, Cal March 31, 1864. 

Benicia Barracks, Cal April 30, 1864. 

Camp Union, Cal. June 4, 1864. 

Camp Bidwell, Cal July 31, 1864. 

Camp Bidwell, Cal August 31, 1864. 

Camp Bidwell, Cal September 30, 1864. 

Camp Bidwell, Cal October 31, 1864. 

Camp Bidwell, Cal November 30, 1864. 

Camp Bidwell, Cal December .31, 1864. 

Cam]) Bidwell, Cal. January 31, 1865. 

Camp Bidwell, Cal. February 28, 1865. 

Camp Bidwell, Cal March 31, 1865. 

Camp Bidwell, Cal. April 30, 1865. 

Camp No. 8 May 31, 1865. 

Camp No. 16. Otter Creek, Nev. June 30, 1865. 

Queens River Station, Nev. July 31, 1865. 

Camp McDermit, Nev. August 31, 1865. 

Camp McDennit, Nev. September 30, 1865. 

Camp :\rcDermit, Nev. October 31, 1865. 

Camp McDermit, Nev. November 30, 1865. 

COMPANY K. 

Camp Alert, Cal October 31, 1861. 

Camp Alert, Cal November 30, 1861. 

Camp Alert, Cal. December 31, 1861. 

Camp Alert, Cal January 31, 1862. 

Camp Alert, Cal February 28, 1862. 

No record of the stations occupied by this company from February, 1862, to March, 
1863, can be found. 

March 31, 1863. 

Fort Ruby, Nev April 30, 1863. 

Deep Creek, U. T May 31, 1863. 

Government Springs, U. T June 30, 1863. 

Cedar Swamps, U. T July 31, 1863. 

Fort Ruby, Nev August 31, 1863. 

Fort Ruby, Nev September 30, 1863. 

Farmington, U. T October 31, 1863. 

Camp Douglas, U. T. November 30, 1863. 

Camp Douglas, U. T December 31, 1863. 

Camp Douglas, U. T January 31, 1864. 

Camp Douglas, U. T February 29, 1864. 

Camp Douglas, U. T March 31, 1864. 

Camp Relief, U. T April 30, 1»61. 

Canon Creek, I. T. ]May 31, 1864. 

Camp Conness, I. T June 30, 1864. 

Farmington, U. T July .31, 1864. 

Camp Conness, I. T August .31, 1864. 

Camp Douglas, U. T , September 30, 1864. 

Camp No. 5, at Lovelands, U. T October 31, 1864. 

Camp No. 33, Desert Wells, Nev November 30, 1864. 

Camp Union, Cal * January 31, 1865. 

Camp Union, Cal February 28, 1865. 

Camp Union, Cal March 31, 1865. 

Camp Union, Cal April 30, 1865. 

<'amp Union, Cal •_ May 31, 1865. 

Cami) Union, Cal. June 30, 1865. 

Camp No. 5, Chico, Cal •_ July 31, 1865. 

Smoke Creek, Nev August 31, 1865. 

Smoke Creek, Nev. October 31, 1865. 

Camp No. 4, en route to Fort Churchill, Nev November 30, 1865. 

Fort Churchill, Nev December 31, 1865. 



194 RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 

Fort Churchill, Nev. January 31, 1866. 

Fort Churchill, Nev. February 28, 1866. 

Fort Churchill, Nev. March 31, 1866. 

Fort Churchill, Xev. May 1, 1866. 

COMPANY L. 

Camp Alert, Cal October 31, 1861. 

Camp Alert, Cal November 30, 1861. 

Camp Alert, Cal December 31, 1861. 

Camp Alert, Cal January 31, 1862. 

Camp Alert, Cal February 28, 1862. 

No record of the stations occupied by this company from February, 1862, to April, 1863, 
can be found. 

Camp at Bishop Creek, Owens River, Cal April 30, 1863. 

Camp Independence, Owens River, Cal May 31, 1863. 

Fort Churchill, Nev June 30, 1863. 

Fort Ruby, Nev July 31, 1863. 

Camp Springs, en route to Salt Lake, U. T August 31, 1863. 

Camp Douglas, U. T " September 30, 1863. 

Camp Douglas, U. T October 31, 1863. 

Camp Douglas, U. T November 30, 1863. 

Camp Douglas, U. T December 31, 1863. 

Camp Douglas, U. T January 31, 1864. 

Camp Dousjias, U. T February 29, 1864. 

Rush Valley, U. T March 31, 1864. 

Camp Relief, U. T April 30, 1864. 

Camp Conness, I. T Mav 31, 1864. 

Bingham Creek, U. T July 1, 1864. 

Salt'Lake City, U. T August 31, 1864. 

Salt Lake Citv, U. T October 1, 1864. 

Fort Bridger,'Wy. T December 1, 1864. 

FortBridger, Wy. T February 1, 1865. 

Fort Bridger, WJ^ T March 1, 1865. 

FortBridger, Wy. T April 30, 1865. 

Camp No. 18, en route to Fort Laramie, Wy. T June 1, 1865. 

Church Buttes, Salt Lake, U. T October 31, 1865. 

Government Reservation, Rush Valley, U. T January 31, 1866. 

Government Reservation, Rush Valley, U. T March 31, 1866. 

Government Reservation, Rush Valley, JJ. T April 30, 1866. 

Camp Douglas, U. T ! Mav 31, 1866. 

Camp Douglas, U. T June 30, 1866. 

Camp Douglas, U. T July 12, 1866. 

COMPANY M. 

Camp Alert, Cal October 31, 186L 

Camp Alert, Cal November 30, 1861. 

Camp Alert, Cal December 31, 1861. 

Camp Alert, Cal January 31, 1862. 

Camp Alert, Cal February 28, 1862. 

No record of the stations occupied by this company from February, 1862, to May, 1863, 
can be found. 

Fort Bridger, Wy. T May 1, 1863. 

Fort Bridger, Wy. T June 30, 1863. 

Fort Bridger, Wy. T July 31, 186.3. 

Fort Bridger, Wy. T August 31, 1863. 

Fort Bridger, Wy. T September 30, 1863. 

Fort Bridger, Wy. T October 31, 1863. 

Fort Bridger, Wy. T November 30, 1863. 

Fort Bridger, Wv. T January 1, 1864. 

Fort Bridger, Wv. T February 2, 1864. 

Fort Bridger, Wy. T March 31, 1864. 

Fort Bridger, Wy. T April 30, 1864. 

Camp No. 21, Rio Virgin, Arizona 

May 31, 1864. (Salt Lake and Fort Mojave W. R. Expedition.) 

Camp No. 31, Fort Mojave, Arizona .' 

June 30, 1864. (Salt Lake and Fort Mojave W. R. Expedition.) 

Camp No. 37, Muddy Creek, Arizona 

July 31, 1864. (Salt Lake and Fort Mojave W. R. Expedition.) 

Camp Conness. I. T _ August 31, 1864. 

Camp Douglas, U. T September 30, 1864. 

Camp Douglas, U. T October 31, 1864. 

FortBridger, Wy. T.. November 30, 1864. 



SECOND REGIMENT OF CAVALRY, 195 

Fort Bridger, "Wy. T. December 31, 1864. 

Fort Bridger, Wy. T Januaiy 31, 1865. 

Fort Bridger, Wy. T.. February 28, 1865. 

Fort Bridger, Wy. T March 31, 1865. 

Fort Bridger, Wv. T April 30, 1865. 

Fort Laramie, Wy. T May 31, 1865. 

Fort Laramie, Wy. T June30, 1865. 

Little Cottonwood Creek, D. T. July 31, 1865. 

Tongue River, D. T . August 31, 1865. 

North Platte River, D. T September 30, 1865. 

Church Buttes, U.~T. October 31, 1865. 

Government Reservation, Rush Valley, U. T. November 30, 1865. 

Government Reservation, Rush Valley, U. T. December 31, 1865. 

Government Reservation, Rush Valley, U. T January 31, 1866. 

Government Reservation, Rush Valley, U. T. -_. February 28, 1866. 

Government Reservation, Rush Valley, U. T... March 31, 1866. 

Government Reservation, Rush Valley, U. T April 30, 1866. 

Camp Douglas, IT. T May 31, 1866. 

Camp Douglas, U. T June 30, 1866. 



196 



RECORD OF CALIFORNIA TROOPS. 



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SECOND REGIMENT OF CAVALRY. 



253 




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